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// Copyright (c) 2010 Google Inc.
// All rights reserved.
// Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
// modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
// met:
// * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
// notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
// * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
// copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer
// in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
// distribution.
// * Neither the name of Google Inc. nor the names of its
// contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
// this software without specific prior written permission.
// x86-specific stackwalker.
// See stackwalker_x86.h for documentation.
// Author: Mark Mentovai
#include <assert.h>
#include <string>
#include "common/scoped_ptr.h"
#include "google_breakpad/processor/call_stack.h"
#include "google_breakpad/processor/code_modules.h"
#include "google_breakpad/processor/memory_region.h"
#include "google_breakpad/processor/source_line_resolver_interface.h"
#include "google_breakpad/processor/stack_frame_cpu.h"
#include "processor/logging.h"
#include "processor/postfix_evaluator-inl.h"
#include "processor/stackwalker_x86.h"
#include "processor/windows_frame_info.h"
#include "processor/cfi_frame_info.h"
namespace google_breakpad {
// Max reasonable size for a single x86 frame is 128 KB. This value is used in
// a heuristic for recovering of the EBP chain after a scan for return address.
// This value is based on a stack frame size histogram built for a set of
// popular third party libraries which suggests that 99.5% of all frames are
// smaller than 128 KB.
static const uint32_t kMaxReasonableGapBetweenFrames = 128 * 1024;
const StackwalkerX86::CFIWalker::RegisterSet
StackwalkerX86::cfi_register_map_[] = {
// It may seem like $eip and $esp are callee-saves, because (with Unix or
// cdecl calling conventions) the callee is responsible for having them
// restored upon return. But the callee_saves flags here really means
// that the walker should assume they're unchanged if the CFI doesn't
// mention them, which is clearly wrong for $eip and $esp.
{ "$eip", ".ra", false,
StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EIP, &MDRawContextX86::eip },
{ "$esp", ".cfa", false,
StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_ESP, &MDRawContextX86::esp },
{ "$ebp", NULL, true,
StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EBP, &MDRawContextX86::ebp },
{ "$eax", NULL, false,
StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EAX, &MDRawContextX86::eax },
{ "$ebx", NULL, true,
StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EBX, &MDRawContextX86::ebx },
{ "$ecx", NULL, false,
StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_ECX, &MDRawContextX86::ecx },
{ "$edx", NULL, false,
StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EDX, &MDRawContextX86::edx },
{ "$esi", NULL, true,
StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_ESI, &MDRawContextX86::esi },
{ "$edi", NULL, true,
StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EDI, &MDRawContextX86::edi },
StackwalkerX86::StackwalkerX86(const SystemInfo* system_info,
const MDRawContextX86* context,
MemoryRegion* memory,
const CodeModules* modules,
StackFrameSymbolizer* resolver_helper)
: Stackwalker(system_info, memory, modules, resolver_helper),
(sizeof(cfi_register_map_) / sizeof(cfi_register_map_[0]))) {
if (memory_ && memory_->GetBase() + memory_->GetSize() - 1 > 0xffffffff) {
// The x86 is a 32-bit CPU, the limits of the supplied stack are invalid.
// Mark memory_ = NULL, which will cause stackwalking to fail.
BPLOG(ERROR) << "Memory out of range for stackwalking: " <<
HexString(memory_->GetBase()) << "+" <<
memory_ = NULL;
StackFrameX86::~StackFrameX86() {
if (windows_frame_info)
delete windows_frame_info;
windows_frame_info = NULL;
if (cfi_frame_info)
delete cfi_frame_info;
cfi_frame_info = NULL;
uint64_t StackFrameX86::ReturnAddress() const {
assert(context_validity & StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EIP);
return context.eip;
StackFrame* StackwalkerX86::GetContextFrame() {
if (!context_) {
BPLOG(ERROR) << "Can't get context frame without context";
return NULL;
StackFrameX86* frame = new StackFrameX86();
// The instruction pointer is stored directly in a register, so pull it
// straight out of the CPU context structure.
frame->context = *context_;
frame->context_validity = StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_ALL;
frame->trust = StackFrame::FRAME_TRUST_CONTEXT;
frame->instruction = frame->context.eip;
return frame;
StackFrameX86* StackwalkerX86::GetCallerByWindowsFrameInfo(
const vector<StackFrame*> &frames,
WindowsFrameInfo* last_frame_info,
bool stack_scan_allowed) {
StackFrame::FrameTrust trust = StackFrame::FRAME_TRUST_NONE;
StackFrameX86* last_frame = static_cast<StackFrameX86*>(frames.back());
// Save the stack walking info we found, in case we need it later to
// find the callee of the frame we're constructing now.
last_frame->windows_frame_info = last_frame_info;
// This function only covers the full STACK WIN case. If
// last_frame_info is VALID_PARAMETER_SIZE-only, then we should
// assume the traditional frame format or use some other strategy.
if (last_frame_info->valid != WindowsFrameInfo::VALID_ALL)
return NULL;
// This stackwalker sets each frame's %esp to its value immediately prior
// to the CALL into the callee. This means that %esp points to the last
// callee argument pushed onto the stack, which may not be where %esp points
// after the callee returns. Specifically, the value is correct for the
// cdecl calling convention, but not other conventions. The cdecl
// convention requires a caller to pop its callee's arguments from the
// stack after the callee returns. This is usually accomplished by adding
// the known size of the arguments to %esp. Other calling conventions,
// including stdcall, thiscall, and fastcall, require the callee to pop any
// parameters stored on the stack before returning. This is usually
// accomplished by using the RET n instruction, which pops n bytes off
// the stack after popping the return address.
// Because each frame's %esp will point to a location on the stack after
// callee arguments have been PUSHed, when locating things in a stack frame
// relative to %esp, the size of the arguments to the callee need to be
// taken into account. This seems a little bit unclean, but it's better
// than the alternative, which would need to take these same things into
// account, but only for cdecl functions. With this implementation, we get
// to be agnostic about each function's calling convention. Furthermore,
// this is how Windows debugging tools work, so it means that the %esp
// values produced by this stackwalker directly correspond to the %esp
// values you'll see there.
// If the last frame has no callee (because it's the context frame), just
// set the callee parameter size to 0: the stack pointer can't point to
// callee arguments because there's no callee. This is correct as long
// as the context wasn't captured while arguments were being pushed for
// a function call. Note that there may be functions whose parameter sizes
// are unknown, 0 is also used in that case. When that happens, it should
// be possible to walk to the next frame without reference to %esp.
uint32_t last_frame_callee_parameter_size = 0;
int frames_already_walked = frames.size();
if (frames_already_walked >= 2) {
const StackFrameX86* last_frame_callee
= static_cast<StackFrameX86*>(frames[frames_already_walked - 2]);
WindowsFrameInfo* last_frame_callee_info
= last_frame_callee->windows_frame_info;
if (last_frame_callee_info &&
& WindowsFrameInfo::VALID_PARAMETER_SIZE)) {
last_frame_callee_parameter_size =
// Set up the dictionary for the PostfixEvaluator. %ebp and %esp are used
// in each program string, and their previous values are known, so set them
// here.
PostfixEvaluator<uint32_t>::DictionaryType dictionary;
// Provide the current register values.
dictionary["$ebp"] = last_frame->context.ebp;
dictionary["$esp"] = last_frame->context.esp;
// Provide constants from the debug info for last_frame and its callee.
// .cbCalleeParams is a Breakpad extension that allows us to use the
// PostfixEvaluator engine when certain types of debugging information
// are present without having to write the constants into the program
// string as literals.
dictionary[".cbCalleeParams"] = last_frame_callee_parameter_size;
dictionary[".cbSavedRegs"] = last_frame_info->saved_register_size;
dictionary[".cbLocals"] = last_frame_info->local_size;
uint32_t raSearchStart = last_frame->context.esp +
last_frame_callee_parameter_size +
last_frame_info->local_size +
uint32_t raSearchStartOld = raSearchStart;
uint32_t found = 0; // dummy value
// Scan up to three words above the calculated search value, in case
// the stack was aligned to a quadword boundary.
// TODO(ivan.penkov): Consider cleaning up the scan for return address that
// follows. The purpose of this scan is to adjust the .raSearchStart
// calculation (which is based on register %esp) in the cases where register
// %esp may have been aligned (up to a quadword). There are two problems
// with this approach:
// 1) In practice, 64 byte boundary alignment is seen which clearly can not
// be handled by a three word scan.
// 2) A search for a return address is "guesswork" by definition because
// the results will be different depending on what is left on the stack
// from previous executions.
// So, basically, the results from this scan should be ignored if other means
// for calculation of the value of .raSearchStart are available.
if (ScanForReturnAddress(raSearchStart, &raSearchStart, &found, 3) &&
last_frame->trust == StackFrame::FRAME_TRUST_CONTEXT &&
last_frame->windows_frame_info != NULL &&
last_frame_info->type_ == WindowsFrameInfo::STACK_INFO_FPO &&
raSearchStartOld == raSearchStart &&
found == last_frame->context.eip) {
// The context frame represents an FPO-optimized Windows system call.
// On the top of the stack we have a pointer to the current instruction.
// This means that the callee has returned but the return address is still
// on the top of the stack which is very atypical situaltion.
// Skip one slot from the stack and do another scan in order to get the
// actual return address.
raSearchStart += 4;
ScanForReturnAddress(raSearchStart, &raSearchStart, &found, 3);
dictionary[".cbParams"] = last_frame_info->parameter_size;
// Decide what type of program string to use. The program string is in
// postfix notation and will be passed to PostfixEvaluator::Evaluate.
// Given the dictionary and the program string, it is possible to compute
// the return address and the values of other registers in the calling
// function. Because of bugs described below, the stack may need to be
// scanned for these values. The results of program string evaluation
// will be used to determine whether to scan for better values.
string program_string;
bool recover_ebp = true;
trust = StackFrame::FRAME_TRUST_CFI;
if (!last_frame_info->program_string.empty()) {
// The FPO data has its own program string, which will tell us how to
// get to the caller frame, and may even fill in the values of
// nonvolatile registers and provide pointers to local variables and
// parameters. In some cases, particularly with program strings that use
// .raSearchStart, the stack may need to be scanned afterward.
program_string = last_frame_info->program_string;
} else if (last_frame_info->allocates_base_pointer) {
// The function corresponding to the last frame doesn't use the frame
// pointer for conventional purposes, but it does allocate a new
// frame pointer and use it for its own purposes. Its callee's
// information is still accessed relative to %esp, and the previous
// value of %ebp can be recovered from a location in its stack frame,
// within the saved-register area.
// Functions that fall into this category use the %ebp register for
// a purpose other than the frame pointer. They restore the caller's
// %ebp before returning. These functions create their stack frame
// after a CALL by decrementing the stack pointer in an amount
// sufficient to store local variables, and then PUSHing saved
// registers onto the stack. Arguments to a callee function, if any,
// are PUSHed after that. Walking up to the caller, therefore,
// can be done solely with calculations relative to the stack pointer
// (%esp). The return address is recovered from the memory location
// above the known sizes of the callee's parameters, saved registers,
// and locals. The caller's stack pointer (the value of %esp when
// the caller executed CALL) is the location immediately above the
// saved return address. The saved value of %ebp to be restored for
// the caller is at a known location in the saved-register area of
// the stack frame.
// For this type of frame, MSVC 14 (from Visual Studio 8/2005) in
// link-time code generation mode (/LTCG and /GL) can generate erroneous
// debugging data. The reported size of saved registers can be 0,
// which is clearly an error because these frames must, at the very
// least, save %ebp. For this reason, in addition to those given above
// about the use of .raSearchStart, the stack may need to be scanned
// for a better return address and a better frame pointer after the
// program string is evaluated.
// %eip_new = *(%esp_old + callee_params + saved_regs + locals)
// %ebp_new = *(%esp_old + callee_params + saved_regs - 8)
// %esp_new = %esp_old + callee_params + saved_regs + locals + 4
program_string = "$eip .raSearchStart ^ = "
"$ebp $esp .cbCalleeParams + .cbSavedRegs + 8 - ^ = "
"$esp .raSearchStart 4 + =";
} else {
// The function corresponding to the last frame doesn't use %ebp at
// all. The callee frame is located relative to %esp.
// The called procedure's instruction pointer and stack pointer are
// recovered in the same way as the case above, except that no
// frame pointer (%ebp) is used at all, so it is not saved anywhere
// in the callee's stack frame and does not need to be recovered.
// Because %ebp wasn't used in the callee, whatever value it has
// is the value that it had in the caller, so it can be carried
// straight through without bringing its validity into question.
// Because of the use of .raSearchStart, the stack will possibly be
// examined to locate a better return address after program string
// evaluation. The stack will not be examined to locate a saved
// %ebp value, because these frames do not save (or use) %ebp.
// %eip_new = *(%esp_old + callee_params + saved_regs + locals)
// %esp_new = %esp_old + callee_params + saved_regs + locals + 4
// %ebp_new = %ebp_old
program_string = "$eip .raSearchStart ^ = "
"$esp .raSearchStart 4 + =";
recover_ebp = false;
// Check for alignment operators in the program string. If alignment
// operators are found, then current %ebp must be valid and it is the only
// reliable data point that can be used for getting to the previous frame.
// E.g. the .raSearchStart calculation (above) is based on %esp and since
// %esp was aligned in the current frame (which is a lossy operation) the
// calculated value of .raSearchStart cannot be correct and should not be
// used. Instead .raSearchStart must be calculated based on %ebp.
// The code that follows assumes that .raSearchStart is supposed to point
// at the saved return address (ebp + 4).
// For some more details on this topic, take a look at the following thread:
if ((StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EBP & last_frame->context_validity) != 0 &&
program_string.find('@') != string::npos) {
raSearchStart = last_frame->context.ebp + 4;
// The difference between raSearch and raSearchStart is unknown,
// but making them the same seems to work well in practice.
dictionary[".raSearchStart"] = raSearchStart;
dictionary[".raSearch"] = raSearchStart;
// Now crank it out, making sure that the program string set at least the
// two required variables.
PostfixEvaluator<uint32_t> evaluator =
PostfixEvaluator<uint32_t>(&dictionary, memory_);
PostfixEvaluator<uint32_t>::DictionaryValidityType dictionary_validity;
if (!evaluator.Evaluate(program_string, &dictionary_validity) ||
dictionary_validity.find("$eip") == dictionary_validity.end() ||
dictionary_validity.find("$esp") == dictionary_validity.end()) {
// Program string evaluation failed. It may be that %eip is not somewhere
// with stack frame info, and %ebp is pointing to non-stack memory, so
// our evaluation couldn't succeed. We'll scan the stack for a return
// address. This can happen if the stack is in a module for which
// we don't have symbols, and that module is compiled without a
// frame pointer.
uint32_t location_start = last_frame->context.esp;
uint32_t location, eip;
if (!stack_scan_allowed
|| !ScanForReturnAddress(location_start, &location, &eip,
frames.size() == 1 /* is_context_frame */)) {
// if we can't find an instruction pointer even with stack scanning,
// give up.
return NULL;
// This seems like a reasonable return address. Since program string
// evaluation failed, use it and set %esp to the location above the
// one where the return address was found.
dictionary["$eip"] = eip;
dictionary["$esp"] = location + 4;
trust = StackFrame::FRAME_TRUST_SCAN;
// Since this stack frame did not use %ebp in a traditional way,
// locating the return address isn't entirely deterministic. In that
// case, the stack can be scanned to locate the return address.
// However, if program string evaluation resulted in both %eip and
// %ebp values of 0, trust that the end of the stack has been
// reached and don't scan for anything else.
if (dictionary["$eip"] != 0 || dictionary["$ebp"] != 0) {
int offset = 0;
// This scan can only be done if a CodeModules object is available, to
// check that candidate return addresses are in fact inside a module.
// TODO(mmentovai): This ignores dynamically-generated code. One possible
// solution is to check the minidump's memory map to see if the candidate
// %eip value comes from a mapped executable page, although this would
// require dumps that contain MINIDUMP_MEMORY_INFO, which the Breakpad
// client doesn't currently write (it would need to call MiniDumpWriteDump
// with the MiniDumpWithFullMemoryInfo type bit set). Even given this
// ability, older OSes (pre-XP SP2) and CPUs (pre-P4) don't enforce
// an independent execute privilege on memory pages.
uint32_t eip = dictionary["$eip"];
if (modules_ && !modules_->GetModuleForAddress(eip)) {
// The instruction pointer at .raSearchStart was invalid, so start
// looking one 32-bit word above that location.
uint32_t location_start = dictionary[".raSearchStart"] + 4;
uint32_t location;
if (stack_scan_allowed
&& ScanForReturnAddress(location_start, &location, &eip,
frames.size() == 1 /* is_context_frame */)) {
// This is a better return address that what program string
// evaluation found. Use it, and set %esp to the location above the
// one where the return address was found.
dictionary["$eip"] = eip;
dictionary["$esp"] = location + 4;
offset = location - location_start;
trust = StackFrame::FRAME_TRUST_CFI_SCAN;
if (recover_ebp) {
// When trying to recover the previous value of the frame pointer (%ebp),
// start looking at the lowest possible address in the saved-register
// area, and look at the entire saved register area, increased by the
// size of |offset| to account for additional data that may be on the
// stack. The scan is performed from the highest possible address to
// the lowest, because the expectation is that the function's prolog
// would have saved %ebp early.
uint32_t ebp = dictionary["$ebp"];
// When a scan for return address is used, it is possible to skip one or
// more frames (when return address is not in a known module). One
// indication for skipped frames is when the value of %ebp is lower than
// the location of the return address on the stack
bool has_skipped_frames =
(trust != StackFrame::FRAME_TRUST_CFI && ebp <= raSearchStart + offset);
uint32_t value; // throwaway variable to check pointer validity
if (has_skipped_frames || !memory_->GetMemoryAtAddress(ebp, &value)) {
int fp_search_bytes = last_frame_info->saved_register_size + offset;
uint32_t location_end = last_frame->context.esp +
for (uint32_t location = location_end + fp_search_bytes;
location >= location_end;
location -= 4) {
if (!memory_->GetMemoryAtAddress(location, &ebp))
if (memory_->GetMemoryAtAddress(ebp, &value)) {
// The candidate value is a pointer to the same memory region
// (the stack). Prefer it as a recovered %ebp result.
dictionary["$ebp"] = ebp;
// Create a new stack frame (ownership will be transferred to the caller)
// and fill it in.
StackFrameX86* frame = new StackFrameX86();
frame->trust = trust;
frame->context = last_frame->context;
frame->context.eip = dictionary["$eip"];
frame->context.esp = dictionary["$esp"];
frame->context.ebp = dictionary["$ebp"];
frame->context_validity = StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EIP |
// These are nonvolatile (callee-save) registers, and the program string
// may have filled them in.
if (dictionary_validity.find("$ebx") != dictionary_validity.end()) {
frame->context.ebx = dictionary["$ebx"];
frame->context_validity |= StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EBX;
if (dictionary_validity.find("$esi") != dictionary_validity.end()) {
frame->context.esi = dictionary["$esi"];
frame->context_validity |= StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_ESI;
if (dictionary_validity.find("$edi") != dictionary_validity.end()) {
frame->context.edi = dictionary["$edi"];
frame->context_validity |= StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EDI;
return frame;
StackFrameX86* StackwalkerX86::GetCallerByCFIFrameInfo(
const vector<StackFrame*> &frames,
CFIFrameInfo* cfi_frame_info) {
StackFrameX86* last_frame = static_cast<StackFrameX86*>(frames.back());
last_frame->cfi_frame_info = cfi_frame_info;
scoped_ptr<StackFrameX86> frame(new StackFrameX86());
if (!cfi_walker_
.FindCallerRegisters(*memory_, *cfi_frame_info,
last_frame->context, last_frame->context_validity,
&frame->context, &frame->context_validity))
return NULL;
// Make sure we recovered all the essentials.
static const int essentials = (StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EIP
| StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EBP);
if ((frame->context_validity & essentials) != essentials)
return NULL;
frame->trust = StackFrame::FRAME_TRUST_CFI;
return frame.release();
StackFrameX86* StackwalkerX86::GetCallerByEBPAtBase(
const vector<StackFrame*> &frames,
bool stack_scan_allowed) {
StackFrame::FrameTrust trust;
StackFrameX86* last_frame = static_cast<StackFrameX86*>(frames.back());
uint32_t last_esp = last_frame->context.esp;
uint32_t last_ebp = last_frame->context.ebp;
// Assume that the standard %ebp-using x86 calling convention is in
// use.
// The typical x86 calling convention, when frame pointers are present,
// is for the calling procedure to use CALL, which pushes the return
// address onto the stack and sets the instruction pointer (%eip) to
// the entry point of the called routine. The called routine then
// PUSHes the calling routine's frame pointer (%ebp) onto the stack
// before copying the stack pointer (%esp) to the frame pointer (%ebp).
// Therefore, the calling procedure's frame pointer is always available
// by dereferencing the called procedure's frame pointer, and the return
// address is always available at the memory location immediately above
// the address pointed to by the called procedure's frame pointer. The
// calling procedure's stack pointer (%esp) is 8 higher than the value
// of the called procedure's frame pointer at the time the calling
// procedure made the CALL: 4 bytes for the return address pushed by the
// CALL itself, and 4 bytes for the callee's PUSH of the caller's frame
// pointer.
// %eip_new = *(%ebp_old + 4)
// %esp_new = %ebp_old + 8
// %ebp_new = *(%ebp_old)
uint32_t caller_eip, caller_esp, caller_ebp;
if (memory_->GetMemoryAtAddress(last_ebp + 4, &caller_eip) &&
memory_->GetMemoryAtAddress(last_ebp, &caller_ebp)) {
caller_esp = last_ebp + 8;
trust = StackFrame::FRAME_TRUST_FP;
} else {
// We couldn't read the memory %ebp refers to. It may be that %ebp
// is pointing to non-stack memory. We'll scan the stack for a
// return address. This can happen if last_frame is executing code
// for a module for which we don't have symbols, and that module
// is compiled without a frame pointer.
if (!stack_scan_allowed
|| !ScanForReturnAddress(last_esp, &caller_esp, &caller_eip,
frames.size() == 1 /* is_context_frame */)) {
// if we can't find an instruction pointer even with stack scanning,
// give up.
return NULL;
// ScanForReturnAddress found a reasonable return address. Advance %esp to
// the location immediately above the one where the return address was
// found.
caller_esp += 4;
// Try to restore the %ebp chain. The caller %ebp should be stored at a
// location immediately below the one where the return address was found.
// A valid caller %ebp must be greater than the address where it is stored
// and the gap between the two adjacent frames should be reasonable.
uint32_t restored_ebp_chain = caller_esp - 8;
if (!memory_->GetMemoryAtAddress(restored_ebp_chain, &caller_ebp) ||
caller_ebp <= restored_ebp_chain ||
caller_ebp - restored_ebp_chain > kMaxReasonableGapBetweenFrames) {
// The restored %ebp chain doesn't appear to be valid.
// Assume that %ebp is unchanged.
caller_ebp = last_ebp;
trust = StackFrame::FRAME_TRUST_SCAN;
// Create a new stack frame (ownership will be transferred to the caller)
// and fill it in.
StackFrameX86* frame = new StackFrameX86();
frame->trust = trust;
frame->context = last_frame->context;
frame->context.eip = caller_eip;
frame->context.esp = caller_esp;
frame->context.ebp = caller_ebp;
frame->context_validity = StackFrameX86::CONTEXT_VALID_EIP |
return frame;
StackFrame* StackwalkerX86::GetCallerFrame(const CallStack* stack,
bool stack_scan_allowed) {
if (!memory_ || !stack) {
BPLOG(ERROR) << "Can't get caller frame without memory or stack";
return NULL;
const vector<StackFrame*> &frames = *stack->frames();
StackFrameX86* last_frame = static_cast<StackFrameX86*>(frames.back());
scoped_ptr<StackFrameX86> new_frame;
// If the resolver has Windows stack walking information, use that.
WindowsFrameInfo* windows_frame_info
= frame_symbolizer_->FindWindowsFrameInfo(last_frame);
if (windows_frame_info)
new_frame.reset(GetCallerByWindowsFrameInfo(frames, windows_frame_info,
// If the resolver has DWARF CFI information, use that.
if (!new_frame.get()) {
CFIFrameInfo* cfi_frame_info =
if (cfi_frame_info)
new_frame.reset(GetCallerByCFIFrameInfo(frames, cfi_frame_info));
// Otherwise, hope that the program was using a traditional frame structure.
if (!new_frame.get())
new_frame.reset(GetCallerByEBPAtBase(frames, stack_scan_allowed));
// If nothing worked, tell the caller.
if (!new_frame.get())
return NULL;
// Treat an instruction address of 0 as end-of-stack.
if (new_frame->context.eip == 0)
return NULL;
// If the new stack pointer is at a lower address than the old, then
// that's clearly incorrect. Treat this as end-of-stack to enforce
// progress and avoid infinite loops.
if (new_frame->context.esp <= last_frame->context.esp)
return NULL;
// new_frame->context.eip is the return address, which is the instruction
// after the CALL that caused us to arrive at the callee. Set
// new_frame->instruction to one less than that, so it points within the
// CALL instruction. See StackFrame::instruction for details, and
// StackFrameAMD64::ReturnAddress.
new_frame->instruction = new_frame->context.eip - 1;
return new_frame.release();
} // namespace google_breakpad