blob: 022ab59df739c6f796112d4d063be5112527b1ff [file] [log] [blame]
File: port.c.documentation.txt
Author: Corvus Corax
Desc: Description of port.c Functions and Directions about porting.
See FreeRTOS documentation ebook for details.
FreeRTOS is an architecture independent real time operating system.
Most architecture dependant code sits in a single file: port.c
Architecture dependant definitions sit in: portmacro.h
Other important files:
Source/portable/MemMang/head_3.c - memory management - very simple. Provides
functions like malloc and free - very easy to make a wrapper for on any system
that provides memory management.
FreeRTOS has internal scheduling. The real time scheduler sits in Source/task.c and calls low level functions of port.c for thread management.
For that port.c needs to provide functions to switch between threads on
request, as well as a tick handler that preempts threads on a periodic basis.
Only one FreeRTOS thread is active at any time!
port.c provides the API defined in portmacro.h.
Only a subset of the functions is explained here (with the naming from the
posix port. Their macros are sometimes named a bit different)
void vPortEnterCritical(void);
This function is called if a thread enters a "critical section".
In a critical sections the thread must not be preempted.
(To preempt a thread means to halt its execution when a timer interrupt comes
in, and give execution to another thread)
This function should increase a counter for that thread, since several
"Critical Sections" could be cascaded. Only if the outermost critical section
is exited, is preemtion allowed again.
void vPortExitCritical(void);
This function is called if a thread leaves a "critical section".
If a thread leaves the outermost critical section, the scheduler is allowed to
preempt it on timer interrupt (or other interrupts)
void vPortEnableInterrupts(void);
void vPortDisableInterrupts(void);
functions to enable and disable interrupts. On "real systems" this means all
interrupts including IO. When "simulating" this means the tick handler/ timer
/ timer interrupt. The tick handler is supposed to not do anything if interrupts are disabled.
portSTACK_TYPE *pxPortInitialiseStack( portSTACK_TYPE *pxTopOfStack,
pdTASK_CODE pxCode, void *pvParameters );
Used to initialize a new thread. The stack memory area, command line
parameters for this task and the entry function (pxCode) are given
This function needs to initialize the new task/thread, but suspend it
immediately. It is only to be executed later if the scheduler says so.
returns pxTopOfStack if success and 0 on failure.
The first thread to be created is likely the idle thread. At this time the
scheduler has not been started yet. Therefore it's important to start all
threads in suspended state!
void vPortEndScheduler(void);
Needs to end the scheduler (and as such all Tasks/threads) This means FreeRTOS
terminates - as in (simulated) system shutdown.
portBASE_TYPE xPortStartScheduler(void);
This function doesn't return until someone (another thread) calls
vPortEndScheduler(). You can set up your timer and tick handler here and start
the first thread. Then do what a scheduler does (manage threads)
Sometimes threads go sleeping on purpose (for example during one of FreeRTOS
system calls - including sleep() )
This function should send the thread that calls it into suspended state and
not return until the scheduler gives back execution to this thread.
The scheduler.
What your scheduler needs to do:
Basically what your self written scheduler is allowed to do is the "dirty
work" for the high level scheduler logic provided by FreeRTOS task.c
The scheduler is supposed to run a timer interrupt/tick handler that gets
called every portTICK_RATE_MICROSECONDS microseconds.
That value is defined somewhere in OpenPilot and has to be exact as well as
the same on all architectures.
If you cannot set up a timer with that accuracy you are screwed!
Anyway. Every time the timer tick happens, you have to
- check whether you are allowed to execute the tick handler.
If interrupts are disabled and/or the thread is in a critical section, the
tick handler should do nothing
- Tell FreeRTOS that the tick has happened
Increment the Tick Count using the FreeRTOS function
- If preemption is enabled (and in OpenPilot it is!)
Tell the high level Scheduler of FreeRTOS to do its magic, using the
- You can find out which thread is SUPPOSED to be running with the function
- If this is for some reason not the currently running thread, SUSPEND that
thread with whatever method possible (signals, events, operating system
thread.suspend() - I don't know how to do that in Qt.
- Make the thread returned by xTaskGetCurrentTaskHandle() resume operation as
- Make sure that when you return from the tick handler, exactly one thread is
running and that is the one by xTaskGetCurrentTaskHandle() and all others
are suspended!
On top of that, threads can suspend themselves just like that. That happens
every time they call any blocking FreeRTOS function.
They do that with above mentioned function
When vPortYield is called your scheduler must:
- Tell the high level Scheduler of FreeRTOS to do its magic, using the
- You can then find out which thread is SUPPOSED to be running with the function
- Make sure that the thread calling this function SUSPENDS and the thread
returned by xTaskGetCurrentTaskHandle() gets executed. Be aware that they
could be the same in which case vPortYield does exactly NOTHING!
- This function does not return (since the current thread is sent to sleep)
until the scheduler makes it wake up - either by the tick handler, or by
another thread calling vPortYield().
- So it must not ever return until xTaskGetCurrentTaskHandle() says the
calling thread is the current task handle.
- Then it returns to the caller.
What emthod you use to send threads/tasks to sleep and wake them up again is
up to you.
The posix implementation uses signals and a signal handler in each thread that
sleeps until a resume signal is received
The native STM32 implementation manually switches contexts by and uses actual
system interrupts
(so does the native x86 implementation)
The native Win32 implementation uses win32 API calls to manipulate windows
threads (windows actually provides a call to remote-suspend and resume a
thread - posix doesn't)
I have no clue what measures for thread control and suspension/interruption Qt
offers. (I hope there are some)