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The GNU Free Documentation License 1.1 in DocBook
Markup by Eric Baudais <>
Maintained by the GNOME Documentation Project
Version: 1.0.1
Last Modified: Nov 16, 2000
<appendix id="fdl">
Version 1.1, March 2000
<year>2000</year><holder>Free Software Foundation, Inc.</holder>
<legalnotice id="fdl-legalnotice">
<address>Free Software Foundation, Inc. <street>59 Temple Place,
Suite 330</street>, <city>Boston</city>, <state>MA</state>
<postcode>02111-1307</postcode> <country>USA</country></address>
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
license document, but changing it is not allowed.
<title>GNU Free Documentation License</title>
<sect1 id="fdl-preamble">
<title>0. PREAMBLE</title>
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or
other written document <quote>free</quote> in the sense of
freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and
redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either
commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License
preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for
their work, while not being considered responsible for
modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of <quote>copyleft</quote>, which means
that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in
the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License,
which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
free program should come with manuals providing the same
freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited
to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work,
regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works
whose purpose is instruction or reference.
<sect1 id="fdl-section1">
<para id="fdl-document">
This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
distributed under the terms of this License. The
<quote>Document</quote>, below, refers to any such manual or
work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed
as <quote>you</quote>.
<para id="fdl-modified">
A <quote>Modified Version</quote> of the Document means any work
containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied
verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another
<para id="fdl-secondary">
A <quote>Secondary Section</quote> is a named appendix or a
front-matter section of the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> that deals exclusively
with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the
Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related
matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within
that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a
textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
connection with the subject or with related matters, or of
legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
regarding them.
<para id="fdl-invariant">
The <quote>Invariant Sections</quote> are certain <link
linkend="fdl-secondary"> Secondary Sections</link> whose titles
are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the
notice that says that the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> is released under this
<para id="fdl-cover-texts">
The <quote>Cover Texts</quote> are certain short passages of
text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts,
in the notice that says that the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> is released under this
<para id="fdl-transparent">
A <quote>Transparent</quote> copy of the <link
linkend="fdl-document"> Document</link> means a machine-readable
copy, represented in a format whose specification is available
to the general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited
directly and straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for
images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for
drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is
suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic
translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text
formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format
whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage
subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy
that is not <quote>Transparent</quote> is called
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include
plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input
format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
standard-conforming simple HTML designed for human
modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF,
proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD
and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the
machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for
output purposes only.
<para id="fdl-title-page">
The <quote>Title Page</quote> means, for a printed book, the
title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to
hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in
the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title
page as such, <quote>Title Page</quote> means the text near the
most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the
beginning of the body of the text.
<sect1 id="fdl-section2">
<title>2. VERBATIM COPYING</title>
You may copy and distribute the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> in any medium, either
commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that
you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this
License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or
control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or
distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for
copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you
must also follow the conditions in <link
linkend="fdl-section3">section 3</link>.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated
above, and you may publicly display copies.
<sect1 id="fdl-section3">
<title>3. COPYING IN QUANTITY</title>
If you publish printed copies of the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> numbering more than 100,
and the Document's license notice requires <link
linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Cover Texts</link>, you must enclose
the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these
Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also
clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these
copies. The front cover must present the full title with all
words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add
other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes
limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the
<link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> and satisfy these
conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute <link
linkend="fdl-transparent">Opaque</link> copies of the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> numbering more than 100,
you must either include a machine-readable <link
linkend="fdl-transparent">Transparent</link> copy along with
each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a
complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added
material, which the general network-using public has access to
download anonymously at no charge using public-standard network
protocols. If you use the latter option, you must take
reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque
copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will
remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one
year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly
or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors
of the <link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> well before
redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance
to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
<sect1 id="fdl-section4">
<title>4. MODIFICATIONS</title>
You may copy and distribute a <link
linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link> of the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> under the conditions of
sections <link linkend="fdl-section2">2</link> and <link
linkend="fdl-section3">3</link> above, provided that you release
the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the
Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version
to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do
these things in the Modified Version:
<itemizedlist mark="opencircle">
Use in the <link linkend="fdl-title-page">Title
Page</link> (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
from that of the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>, and from those of
previous versions (which should, if there were any, be
listed in the History section of the Document). You may
use the same title as a previous version if the original
publisher of that version gives permission.
List on the <link linkend="fdl-title-page">Title
Page</link>, as authors, one or more persons or entities
responsible for authorship of the modifications in the
<link linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link>,
together with at least five of the principal authors of
the <link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> (all of
its principal authors, if it has less than five).
State on the <link linkend="fdl-title-page">Title
Page</link> the name of the publisher of the <link
linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link>, as the
Preserve all the copyright notices of the <link
Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
adjacent to the other copyright notices.
Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a
license notice giving the public permission to use the
<link linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link> under
the terms of this License, in the form shown in the
Addendum below.
Preserve in that license notice the full lists of <link
linkend="fdl-invariant"> Invariant Sections</link> and
required <link linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Cover
Texts</link> given in the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document's</link> license notice.
Include an unaltered copy of this License.
Preserve the section entitled <quote>History</quote>, and
its title, and add to it an item stating at least the
title, year, new authors, and publisher of the <link
linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version </link>as given on
the <link linkend="fdl-title-page">Title Page</link>. If
there is no section entitled <quote>History</quote> in the
<link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>, create one
stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the
Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item
describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous
Preserve the network location, if any, given in the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> for public access
to a <link linkend="fdl-transparent">Transparent</link>
copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations
given in the Document for previous versions it was based
on. These may be placed in the <quote>History</quote>
section. You may omit a network location for a work that
was published at least four years before the Document
itself, or if the original publisher of the version it
refers to gives permission.
In any section entitled <quote>Acknowledgements</quote> or
<quote>Dedications</quote>, preserve the section's title,
and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of
each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or
dedications given therein.
Preserve all the <link linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant
Sections</link> of the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>, unaltered in their
text and in their titles. Section numbers or the
equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
Delete any section entitled
<quote>Endorsements</quote>. Such a section may not be
included in the <link linkend="fdl-modified">Modified
Do not retitle any existing section as
<quote>Endorsements</quote> or to conflict in title with
any <link linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant
If the <link linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link>
includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as
<link linkend="fdl-secondary">Secondary Sections</link> and
contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your
option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To
do this, add their titles to the list of <link
linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant Sections</link> in the
Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be
distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section entitled <quote>Endorsements</quote>,
provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your <link
linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link> by various
parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a <link
linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Front-Cover Text</link>, and a passage
of up to 25 words as a <link
linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Back-Cover Text</link>, to the end of
the list of <link linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Cover Texts</link>
in the <link linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link>.
Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text
may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one
entity. If the <link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>
already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously
added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> do not by this License
give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
assert or imply endorsement of any <link
linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version </link>.
<sect1 id="fdl-section5">
<title>5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS</title>
You may combine the <link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>
with other documents released under this License, under the
terms defined in <link linkend="fdl-section4">section 4</link>
above for modified versions, provided that you include in the
combination all of the <link linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant
Sections</link> of all of the original documents, unmodified,
and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in
its license notice.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License,
and multiple identical <link linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant
Sections</link> may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different
contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding
at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique
number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the
list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined
In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled
<quote>History</quote> in the various original documents,
forming one section entitled <quote>History</quote>; likewise
combine any sections entitled <quote>Acknowledgements</quote>,
and any sections entitled <quote>Dedications</quote>. You must
delete all sections entitled <quote>Endorsements.</quote>
<sect1 id="fdl-section6">
You may make a collection consisting of the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies
of this License in the various documents with a single copy that
is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
dispbibute it individually under this License, provided you
insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and
follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim
copying of that document.
<sect1 id="fdl-section7">
A compilation of the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> or its derivatives with
other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a
volume of a storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole
count as a <link linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link>
of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed
for the compilation. Such a compilation is called an
<quote>aggregate</quote>, and this License does not apply to the
other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document , on
account of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves
derivative works of the Document. If the <link
linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Cover Text</link> requirement of <link
linkend="fdl-section3">section 3</link> is applicable to these
copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one
quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may
be placed on covers that surround only the Document within the
aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole
<sect1 id="fdl-section8">
<title>8. TRANSLATION</title>
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
distribute translations of the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> under the terms of <link
linkend="fdl-section4">section 4</link>. Replacing <link
linkend="fdl-invariant"> Invariant Sections</link> with
translations requires special permission from their copyright
holders, but you may include translations of some or all
Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these
Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this
License provided that you also include the original English
version of this License. In case of a disagreement between the
translation and the original English version of this License,
the original English version will prevail.
<sect1 id="fdl-section9">
<title>9. TERMINATION</title>
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the <link
linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> except as expressly
provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy,
modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
<sect1 id="fdl-section10">
The <ulink type="http"
url="">Free Software
Foundation</ulink> may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions
will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ
in detail to address new problems or concerns. See <ulink
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
number. If the <link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>
specifies that a particular numbered version of this License
<quote>or any later version</quote> applies to it, you have the
option of following the terms and conditions either of that
specified version or of any later version that has been
published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If
the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by
the Free Software Foundation.
<sect1 id="fdl-using">
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and
license notices just after the title page:
Copyright &copy; YEAR YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the
Free Software Foundation; with the <link
linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant Sections</link> being LIST
THEIR TITLES, with the <link
linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Front-Cover Texts</link> being LIST,
and with the <link linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Back-Cover
Texts</link> being LIST. A copy of the license is included in
the section entitled <quote>GNU Free Documentation
If you have no <link linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant
Sections</link>, write <quote>with no Invariant Sections</quote>
instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no
<link linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Front-Cover Texts</link>, write
<quote>no Front-Cover Texts</quote> instead of
<quote>Front-Cover Texts being LIST</quote>; likewise for <link
linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Back-Cover Texts</link>.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code,
we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your
choice of free software license, such as the <ulink type="http"
url=""> GNU General Public
License</ulink>, to permit their use in free software.