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</style><title>A real example</title></head><body bgcolor="#8b7765" text="#000000" link="#a06060" vlink="#000000"><table border="0" width="100%" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center"><tr><td width="120"><a href=""><img src="epatents.png" alt="Action against software patents" /></a></td><td width="180"><a href=""><img src="gnome2.png" alt="Gnome2 Logo" /></a><a href=""><img src="w3c.png" alt="W3C Logo" /></a><a href=""><img src="redhat.gif" alt="Red Hat Logo" /></a><div align="left"><a href=""><img src="Libxml2-Logo-180x168.gif" alt="Made with Libxml2 Logo" /></a></div></td><td><table border="0" width="90%" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="center" bgcolor="#000000"><tr><td><table width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="3" bgcolor="#fffacd"><tr><td align="center"><h1>The XML C parser and toolkit of Gnome</h1><h2>A real example</h2></td></tr></table></td></tr></table></td></tr></table><table border="0" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" width="100%" align="center"><tr><td bgcolor="#8b7765"><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2" width="100%"><tr><td valign="top" width="200" bgcolor="#8b7765"><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="1" width="100%" bgcolor="#000000"><tr><td><table width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="3"><tr><td colspan="1" bgcolor="#eecfa1" align="center"><center><b>Developer Menu</b></center></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#fffacd"><form action="search.php" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded" method="get"><input name="query" type="text" size="20" value="" /><input name="submit" type="submit" value="Search ..." /></form><ul><li><a href="index.html" style="font-weight:bold">Main Menu</a></li><li><a href="html/index.html" style="font-weight:bold">Reference Manual</a></li><li><a href="examples/index.html" style="font-weight:bold">Code Examples</a></li><li><a href="guidelines.html">XML Guidelines</a></li><li><a href="tutorial/index.html">Tutorial</a></li><li><a href="xmlreader.html">The Reader Interface</a></li><li><a href="ChangeLog.html">ChangeLog</a></li><li><a href="XSLT.html">XSLT</a></li><li><a href="python.html">Python and bindings</a></li><li><a href="architecture.html">libxml2 architecture</a></li><li><a href="tree.html">The tree output</a></li><li><a href="interface.html">The SAX interface</a></li><li><a href="xmlmem.html">Memory Management</a></li><li><a href="xmlio.html">I/O Interfaces</a></li><li><a href="library.html">The parser interfaces</a></li><li><a href="entities.html">Entities or no entities</a></li><li><a href="namespaces.html">Namespaces</a></li><li><a href="upgrade.html">Upgrading 1.x code</a></li><li><a href="threads.html">Thread safety</a></li><li><a href="DOM.html">DOM Principles</a></li><li><a href="example.html">A real example</a></li><li><a href="xml.html">flat page</a>, <a href="site.xsl">stylesheet</a></li></ul></td></tr></table><table width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="3"><tr><td colspan="1" bgcolor="#eecfa1" align="center"><center><b>API Indexes</b></center></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#fffacd"><ul><li><a href="APIchunk0.html">Alphabetic</a></li><li><a href="APIconstructors.html">Constructors</a></li><li><a href="APIfunctions.html">Functions/Types</a></li><li><a href="APIfiles.html">Modules</a></li><li><a href="APIsymbols.html">Symbols</a></li></ul></td></tr></table><table width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="3"><tr><td colspan="1" bgcolor="#eecfa1" align="center"><center><b>Related links</b></center></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#fffacd"><ul><li><a href="">Mail archive</a></li><li><a href="">XSLT libxslt</a></li><li><a href="">DOM gdome2</a></li><li><a href="">XML-DSig xmlsec</a></li><li><a href="">FTP</a></li><li><a href="">Windows binaries</a></li><li><a href="">Solaris binaries</a></li><li><a href="">MacOsX binaries</a></li><li><a href="">lxml Python bindings</a></li><li><a href="">Perl bindings</a></li><li><a href="">C++ bindings</a></li><li><a href="">PHP bindings</a></li><li><a href="">Pascal bindings</a></li><li><a href="">Ruby bindings</a></li><li><a href="">Tcl bindings</a></li><li><a href="">Bug Tracker</a></li></ul></td></tr></table></td></tr></table></td><td valign="top" bgcolor="#8b7765"><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="1" width="100%"><tr><td><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="1" width="100%" bgcolor="#000000"><tr><td><table border="0" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="1" width="100%"><tr><td bgcolor="#fffacd"><p>Here is a real size example, where the actual content of the application
data is not kept in the DOM tree but uses internal structures. It is based on
a proposal to keep a database of jobs related to Gnome, with an XML based
storage structure. Here is an <a href="gjobs.xml">XML encoded jobs
base</a>:</p><pre>&lt;?xml version="1.0"?&gt;
&lt;gjob:Helping xmlns:gjob=""&gt;
&lt;gjob:Project ID="3"/&gt;
&lt;gjob:Modified&gt;Mon, 07 Jun 1999 20:27:45 -0400 MET DST&lt;/gjob:Modified&gt;
&lt;gjob:Salary&gt;USD 0.00&lt;/gjob:Salary&gt;
&lt;gjob:Person&gt;Nathan Clemons&lt;/gjob:Person&gt;
The program should be released as free software, under the GPL.
A GNOME based system that will allow a superuser to configure
compressed and uncompressed files and/or file systems to be backed
up with a supported media in the system. This should be able to
perform via find commands generating a list of files that are passed
to tar, dd, cpio, cp, gzip, etc., to be directed to the tape machine
or via operations performed on the filesystem itself. Email
notification and GUI status display very important.
&lt;/gjob:Helping&gt;</pre><p>While loading the XML file into an internal DOM tree is a matter of
calling only a couple of functions, browsing the tree to gather the data and
generate the internal structures is harder, and more error prone.</p><p>The suggested principle is to be tolerant with respect to the input
structure. For example, the ordering of the attributes is not significant,
the XML specification is clear about it. It's also usually a good idea not to
depend on the order of the children of a given node, unless it really makes
things harder. Here is some code to parse the information for a person:</p><pre>/*
* A person record
typedef struct person {
char *name;
char *email;
char *company;
char *organisation;
char *smail;
char *webPage;
char *phone;
} person, *personPtr;
* And the code needed to parse it
personPtr parsePerson(xmlDocPtr doc, xmlNsPtr ns, xmlNodePtr cur) {
personPtr ret = NULL;
* allocate the struct
ret = (personPtr) malloc(sizeof(person));
if (ret == NULL) {
fprintf(stderr,"out of memory\n");
memset(ret, 0, sizeof(person));
/* We don't care what the top level element name is */
cur = cur-&gt;xmlChildrenNode;
while (cur != NULL) {
if ((!strcmp(cur-&gt;name, "Person")) &amp;&amp; (cur-&gt;ns == ns))
ret-&gt;name = xmlNodeListGetString(doc, cur-&gt;xmlChildrenNode, 1);
if ((!strcmp(cur-&gt;name, "Email")) &amp;&amp; (cur-&gt;ns == ns))
ret-&gt;email = xmlNodeListGetString(doc, cur-&gt;xmlChildrenNode, 1);
cur = cur-&gt;next;
}</pre><p>Here are a couple of things to notice:</p><ul><li>Usually a recursive parsing style is the more convenient one: XML data
is by nature subject to repetitive constructs and usually exhibits highly
structured patterns.</li>
<li>The two arguments of type <em>xmlDocPtr</em> and <em>xmlNsPtr</em>,
i.e. the pointer to the global XML document and the namespace reserved to
the application. Document wide information are needed for example to
decode entities and it's a good coding practice to define a namespace for
your application set of data and test that the element and attributes
you're analyzing actually pertains to your application space. This is
done by a simple equality test (cur-&gt;ns == ns).</li>
<li>To retrieve text and attributes value, you can use the function
<em>xmlNodeListGetString</em> to gather all the text and entity reference
nodes generated by the DOM output and produce an single text string.</li>
</ul><p>Here is another piece of code used to parse another level of the
structure:</p><pre>#include &lt;libxml/tree.h&gt;
* a Description for a Job
typedef struct job {
char *projectID;
char *application;
char *category;
personPtr contact;
int nbDevelopers;
personPtr developers[100]; /* using dynamic alloc is left as an exercise */
} job, *jobPtr;
* And the code needed to parse it
jobPtr parseJob(xmlDocPtr doc, xmlNsPtr ns, xmlNodePtr cur) {
jobPtr ret = NULL;
* allocate the struct
ret = (jobPtr) malloc(sizeof(job));
if (ret == NULL) {
fprintf(stderr,"out of memory\n");
memset(ret, 0, sizeof(job));
/* We don't care what the top level element name is */
cur = cur-&gt;xmlChildrenNode;
while (cur != NULL) {
if ((!strcmp(cur-&gt;name, "Project")) &amp;&amp; (cur-&gt;ns == ns)) {
ret-&gt;projectID = xmlGetProp(cur, "ID");
if (ret-&gt;projectID == NULL) {
fprintf(stderr, "Project has no ID\n");
if ((!strcmp(cur-&gt;name, "Application")) &amp;&amp; (cur-&gt;ns == ns))
ret-&gt;application = xmlNodeListGetString(doc, cur-&gt;xmlChildrenNode, 1);
if ((!strcmp(cur-&gt;name, "Category")) &amp;&amp; (cur-&gt;ns == ns))
ret-&gt;category = xmlNodeListGetString(doc, cur-&gt;xmlChildrenNode, 1);
if ((!strcmp(cur-&gt;name, "Contact")) &amp;&amp; (cur-&gt;ns == ns))
ret-&gt;contact = parsePerson(doc, ns, cur);
cur = cur-&gt;next;
}</pre><p>Once you are used to it, writing this kind of code is quite simple, but
boring. Ultimately, it could be possible to write stubbers taking either C
data structure definitions, a set of XML examples or an XML DTD and produce
the code needed to import and export the content between C data and XML
storage. This is left as an exercise to the reader :-)</p><p>Feel free to use <a href="example/gjobread.c">the code for the full C
parsing example</a> as a template, it is also available with Makefile in the
Gnome SVN base under libxml2/example</p><p><a href="bugs.html">Daniel Veillard</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></table></td></tr></table></td></tr></table></td></tr></table></body></html>