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ASoC Codec Driver
The codec driver is generic and hardware independent code that configures the
codec to provide audio capture and playback. It should contain no code that is
specific to the target platform or machine. All platform and machine specific
code should be added to the platform and machine drivers respectively.
Each codec driver *must* provide the following features:-
1) Codec DAI and PCM configuration
2) Codec control IO - using I2C, 3 Wire(SPI) or both APIs
3) Mixers and audio controls
4) Codec audio operations
Optionally, codec drivers can also provide:-
5) DAPM description.
6) DAPM event handler.
7) DAC Digital mute control.
Its probably best to use this guide in conjunction with the existing codec
driver code in sound/soc/codecs/
ASoC Codec driver breakdown
1 - Codec DAI and PCM configuration
Each codec driver must have a struct snd_soc_dai_driver to define its DAI and
PCM capabilities and operations. This struct is exported so that it can be
registered with the core by your machine driver.
static struct snd_soc_dai_ops wm8731_dai_ops = {
.prepare = wm8731_pcm_prepare,
.hw_params = wm8731_hw_params,
.shutdown = wm8731_shutdown,
.digital_mute = wm8731_mute,
.set_sysclk = wm8731_set_dai_sysclk,
.set_fmt = wm8731_set_dai_fmt,
struct snd_soc_dai_driver wm8731_dai = {
.name = "wm8731-hifi",
.playback = {
.stream_name = "Playback",
.channels_min = 1,
.channels_max = 2,
.rates = WM8731_RATES,
.formats = WM8731_FORMATS,},
.capture = {
.stream_name = "Capture",
.channels_min = 1,
.channels_max = 2,
.rates = WM8731_RATES,
.formats = WM8731_FORMATS,},
.ops = &wm8731_dai_ops,
.symmetric_rates = 1,
2 - Codec control IO
The codec can usually be controlled via an I2C or SPI style interface
(AC97 combines control with data in the DAI). The codec drivers provide
functions to read and write the codec registers along with supplying a
register cache:-
/* IO control data and register cache */
void *control_data; /* codec control (i2c/3wire) data */
void *reg_cache;
Codec read/write should do any data formatting and call the hardware
read write below to perform the IO. These functions are called by the
core and ALSA when performing DAPM or changing the mixer:-
unsigned int (*read)(struct snd_soc_codec *, unsigned int);
int (*write)(struct snd_soc_codec *, unsigned int, unsigned int);
Codec hardware IO functions - usually points to either the I2C, SPI or AC97
hw_write_t hw_write;
hw_read_t hw_read;
3 - Mixers and audio controls
All the codec mixers and audio controls can be defined using the convenience
macros defined in soc.h.
#define SOC_SINGLE(xname, reg, shift, mask, invert)
Defines a single control as follows:-
xname = Control name e.g. "Playback Volume"
reg = codec register
shift = control bit(s) offset in register
mask = control bit size(s) e.g. mask of 7 = 3 bits
invert = the control is inverted
Other macros include:-
#define SOC_DOUBLE(xname, reg, shift_left, shift_right, mask, invert)
A stereo control
#define SOC_DOUBLE_R(xname, reg_left, reg_right, shift, mask, invert)
A stereo control spanning 2 registers
#define SOC_ENUM_SINGLE(xreg, xshift, xmask, xtexts)
Defines an single enumerated control as follows:-
xreg = register
xshift = control bit(s) offset in register
xmask = control bit(s) size
xtexts = pointer to array of strings that describe each setting
#define SOC_ENUM_DOUBLE(xreg, xshift_l, xshift_r, xmask, xtexts)
Defines a stereo enumerated control
4 - Codec Audio Operations
The codec driver also supports the following ALSA operations:-
/* SoC audio ops */
struct snd_soc_ops {
int (*startup)(struct snd_pcm_substream *);
void (*shutdown)(struct snd_pcm_substream *);
int (*hw_params)(struct snd_pcm_substream *, struct snd_pcm_hw_params *);
int (*hw_free)(struct snd_pcm_substream *);
int (*prepare)(struct snd_pcm_substream *);
Please refer to the ALSA driver PCM documentation for details.
5 - DAPM description.
The Dynamic Audio Power Management description describes the codec power
components and their relationships and registers to the ASoC core.
Please read dapm.txt for details of building the description.
Please also see the examples in other codec drivers.
6 - DAPM event handler
This function is a callback that handles codec domain PM calls and system
domain PM calls (e.g. suspend and resume). It is used to put the codec
to sleep when not in use.
Power states:-
SNDRV_CTL_POWER_D0: /* full On */
/* vref/mid, clk and osc on, active */
SNDRV_CTL_POWER_D1: /* partial On */
SNDRV_CTL_POWER_D2: /* partial On */
SNDRV_CTL_POWER_D3hot: /* Off, with power */
/* everything off except vref/vmid, inactive */
SNDRV_CTL_POWER_D3cold: /* Everything Off, without power */
7 - Codec DAC digital mute control
Most codecs have a digital mute before the DACs that can be used to
minimise any system noise. The mute stops any digital data from
entering the DAC.
A callback can be created that is called by the core for each codec DAI
when the mute is applied or freed.
static int wm8974_mute(struct snd_soc_dai *dai, int mute)
struct snd_soc_codec *codec = dai->codec;
u16 mute_reg = snd_soc_read(codec, WM8974_DAC) & 0xffbf;
if (mute)
snd_soc_write(codec, WM8974_DAC, mute_reg | 0x40);
snd_soc_write(codec, WM8974_DAC, mute_reg);
return 0;