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APEI Error INJection
EINJ provides a hardware error injection mechanism
It is very useful for debugging and testing of other APEI and RAS features.
To use EINJ, make sure the following are enabled in your kernel
The user interface of EINJ is debug file system, under the
directory apei/einj. The following files are provided.
- available_error_type
Reading this file returns the error injection capability of the
platform, that is, which error types are supported. The error type
definition is as follow, the left field is the error type value, the
right field is error description.
0x00000001 Processor Correctable
0x00000002 Processor Uncorrectable non-fatal
0x00000004 Processor Uncorrectable fatal
0x00000008 Memory Correctable
0x00000010 Memory Uncorrectable non-fatal
0x00000020 Memory Uncorrectable fatal
0x00000040 PCI Express Correctable
0x00000080 PCI Express Uncorrectable fatal
0x00000100 PCI Express Uncorrectable non-fatal
0x00000200 Platform Correctable
0x00000400 Platform Uncorrectable non-fatal
0x00000800 Platform Uncorrectable fatal
The format of file contents are as above, except there are only the
available error type lines.
- error_type
This file is used to set the error type value. The error type value
is defined in "available_error_type" description.
- error_inject
Write any integer to this file to trigger the error
injection. Before this, please specify all necessary error
- param1
This file is used to set the first error parameter value. Effect of
parameter depends on error_type specified.
- param2
This file is used to set the second error parameter value. Effect of
parameter depends on error_type specified.
- notrigger
The EINJ mechanism is a two step process. First inject the error, then
perform some actions to trigger it. Setting "notrigger" to 1 skips the
trigger phase, which *may* allow the user to cause the error in some other
context by a simple access to the cpu, memory location, or device that is
the target of the error injection. Whether this actually works depends
on what operations the BIOS actually includes in the trigger phase.
BIOS versions based in the ACPI 4.0 specification have limited options
to control where the errors are injected. Your BIOS may support an
extension (enabled with the param_extension=1 module parameter, or
boot command line einj.param_extension=1). This allows the address
and mask for memory injections to be specified by the param1 and
param2 files in apei/einj.
BIOS versions using the ACPI 5.0 specification have more control over
the target of the injection. For processor related errors (type 0x1,
0x2 and 0x4) the APICID of the target should be provided using the
param1 file in apei/einj. For memory errors (type 0x8, 0x10 and 0x20)
the address is set using param1 with a mask in param2 (0x0 is equivalent
to all ones). For PCI express errors (type 0x40, 0x80 and 0x100) the
segment, bus, device and function are specified using param1:
31 24 23 16 15 11 10 8 7 0
| segment | bus | device | function | reserved |
An ACPI 5.0 BIOS may also allow vendor specific errors to be injected.
In this case a file named vendor will contain identifying information
from the BIOS that hopefully will allow an application wishing to use
the vendor specific extension to tell that they are running on a BIOS
that supports it. All vendor extensions have the 0x80000000 bit set in
error_type. A file vendor_flags controls the interpretation of param1
and param2 (1 = PROCESSOR, 2 = MEMORY, 4 = PCI). See your BIOS vendor
documentation for details (and expect changes to this API if vendors
creativity in using this feature expands beyond our expectations).
# cd /sys/kernel/debug/apei/einj
# cat available_error_type # See which errors can be injected
0x00000002 Processor Uncorrectable non-fatal
0x00000008 Memory Correctable
0x00000010 Memory Uncorrectable non-fatal
# echo 0x12345000 > param1 # Set memory address for injection
# echo 0xfffffffffffff000 > param2 # Mask - anywhere in this page
# echo 0x8 > error_type # Choose correctable memory error
# echo 1 > error_inject # Inject now
For more information about EINJ, please refer to ACPI specification
version 4.0, section 17.5 and ACPI 5.0, section 18.6.