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<html><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"><title>D-Bus Specification</title><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL Stylesheets V1.75.2"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="article" title="D-Bus Specification"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="index"></a>D-Bus Specification</h2></div><div><div class="authorgroup"><div class="author"><h3 class="author"><span class="firstname">Havoc</span> <span class="surname">Pennington</span></h3><div class="affiliation"><span class="orgname">Red Hat, Inc.<br></span><div class="address"><p><br>
    <code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:hp@pobox.com">hp@pobox.com</a>&gt;</code><br>
  </p></div></div></div><div class="author"><h3 class="author"><span class="firstname">Anders</span> <span class="surname">Carlsson</span></h3><div class="affiliation"><span class="orgname">CodeFactory AB<br></span><div class="address"><p><br>
            <code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:andersca@codefactory.se">andersca@codefactory.se</a>&gt;</code><br>
          </p></div></div></div><div class="author"><h3 class="author"><span class="firstname">Alexander</span> <span class="surname">Larsson</span></h3><div class="affiliation"><span class="orgname">Red Hat, Inc.<br></span><div class="address"><p><br>
            <code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:alexl@redhat.com">alexl@redhat.com</a>&gt;</code><br>
          </p></div></div></div><div class="author"><h3 class="author"><span class="firstname">Sven</span> <span class="surname">Herzberg</span></h3><div class="affiliation"><span class="orgname">Imendio AB<br></span><div class="address"><p><br>
            <code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:sven@imendio.com">sven@imendio.com</a>&gt;</code><br>
          </p></div></div></div></div></div><div><p class="releaseinfo">Version 0.15</p></div><div><div class="revhistory"><table border="1" width="100%" summary="Revision history"><tr><th align="left" valign="top" colspan="3"><b>Revision History</b></th></tr><tr><td align="left">Revision current</td><td align="left"><a class="ulink" href="http://cgit.freedesktop.org/dbus/dbus/log/doc/dbus-specification.xml" target="_top">commit log</a></td><td align="left"></td></tr><tr><td align="left" colspan="3"></td></tr><tr><td align="left">Revision 0.15</td><td align="left">3 November 2010</td><td align="left"></td></tr><tr><td align="left" colspan="3"></td></tr><tr><td align="left">Revision 0.14</td><td align="left">12 May 2010</td><td align="left"></td></tr><tr><td align="left" colspan="3"></td></tr><tr><td align="left">Revision 0.13</td><td align="left">23 Dezember 2009</td><td align="left"></td></tr><tr><td align="left" colspan="3"></td></tr><tr><td align="left">Revision 0.12</td><td align="left">7 November, 2006</td><td align="left"></td></tr><tr><td align="left" colspan="3"></td></tr><tr><td align="left">Revision 0.11</td><td align="left">6 February 2005</td><td align="left"></td></tr><tr><td align="left" colspan="3"></td></tr><tr><td align="left">Revision 0.10</td><td align="left">28 January 2005</td><td align="left"></td></tr><tr><td align="left" colspan="3"></td></tr><tr><td align="left">Revision 0.9</td><td align="left">7 Januar 2005</td><td align="left"></td></tr><tr><td align="left" colspan="3"></td></tr><tr><td align="left">Revision 0.8</td><td align="left">06 September 2003</td><td align="left"></td></tr><tr><td align="left" colspan="3">First released document.</td></tr></table></div></div></div><hr></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#stability">Protocol and Specification Stability</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#message-protocol">Message Protocol</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-protocol-signatures">Type Signatures</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-protocol-marshaling">Marshaling (Wire Format)</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-protocol-messages">Message Format</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-protocol-names">Valid Names</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-protocol-types">Message Types</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-protocol-handling-invalid">Invalid Protocol and Spec Extensions</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#auth-protocol">Authentication Protocol</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-protocol-overview">Protocol Overview</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-nul-byte">Special credentials-passing nul byte</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-command-auth">AUTH command</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-command-cancel">CANCEL Command</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-command-data">DATA Command</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-command-begin">BEGIN Command</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-command-rejected">REJECTED Command</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-command-ok">OK Command</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-command-error">ERROR Command</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-command-negotiate-unix-fd">NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD Command</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-command-agree-unix-fd">AGREE_UNIX_FD Command</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-command-future">Future Extensions</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-examples">Authentication examples</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-states">Authentication state diagrams</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#auth-mechanisms">Authentication mechanisms</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#addresses">Server Addresses</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#transports">Transports</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#transports-unix-domain-sockets">Unix Domain Sockets</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#transports-launchd">launchd</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#transports-tcp-sockets">TCP Sockets</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#transports-nonce-tcp-sockets">Nonce-secured TCP Sockets</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#meta-transports">Meta Transports</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#meta-transports-autolaunch">Autolaunch</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#naming-conventions">Naming Conventions</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#uuids">UUIDs</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#standard-interfaces">Standard Interfaces</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#standard-interfaces-peer"><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer</code></a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#standard-interfaces-introspectable"><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable</code></a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#standard-interfaces-properties"><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties</code></a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#introspection-format">Introspection Data Format</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#message-bus">Message Bus Specification</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-bus-overview">Message Bus Overview</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-bus-names">Message Bus Names</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-bus-routing">Message Bus Message Routing</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-bus-starting-services">Message Bus Starting Services</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-bus-types">Well-known Message Bus Instances</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-bus-messages">Message Bus Messages</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="glossary"><a href="#idp5788992">Glossary</a></span></dt></dl></div><div class="sect1" title="Introduction"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="introduction"></a>Introduction</h2></div></div></div><p>
D-Bus is a system for low-latency, low-overhead, easy to use
interprocess communication (IPC). In more detail:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
D-Bus is <span class="emphasis"><em>low-latency</em></span> because it is designed
to avoid round trips and allow asynchronous operation, much like
the X protocol.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
D-Bus is <span class="emphasis"><em>low-overhead</em></span> because it uses a
binary protocol, and does not have to convert to and from a text
format such as XML. Because D-Bus is intended for potentially
high-resolution same-machine IPC, not primarily for Internet IPC,
this is an interesting optimization.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
D-Bus is <span class="emphasis"><em>easy to use</em></span> because it works in terms
of <em class="firstterm">messages</em> rather than byte streams, and
automatically handles a lot of the hard IPC issues. Also, the D-Bus
library is designed to be wrapped in a way that lets developers use
their framework's existing object/type system, rather than learning
a new one specifically for IPC.
</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p><p>
The base D-Bus protocol is a one-to-one (peer-to-peer or client-server)
protocol, specified in <a class="xref" href="#message-protocol" title="Message Protocol">the section called &#8220;Message Protocol&#8221;</a>. That is, it is
a system for one application to talk to a single other
application. However, the primary intended application of the protocol is the
D-Bus <em class="firstterm">message bus</em>, specified in <a class="xref" href="#message-bus" title="Message Bus Specification">the section called &#8220;Message Bus Specification&#8221;</a>. The message bus is a special application that
accepts connections from multiple other applications, and forwards
messages among them.
</p><p>
Uses of D-Bus include notification of system changes (notification of when
a camera is plugged in to a computer, or a new version of some software
has been installed), or desktop interoperability, for example a file
monitoring service or a configuration service.
</p><p>
D-Bus is designed for two specific use cases:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
A "system bus" for notifications from the system to user sessions,
and to allow the system to request input from user sessions.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
A "session bus" used to implement desktop environments such as
GNOME and KDE.
</p></li></ul></div><p>
D-Bus is not intended to be a generic IPC system for any possible
application, and intentionally omits many features found in other
IPC systems for this reason.
</p><p>
At the same time, the bus daemons offer a number of features not found in
other IPC systems, such as single-owner "bus names" (similar to X
selections), on-demand startup of services, and security policies.
In many ways, these features are the primary motivation for developing
D-Bus; other systems would have sufficed if IPC were the only goal.
</p><p>
D-Bus may turn out to be useful in unanticipated applications, but future
versions of this spec and the reference implementation probably will not
incorporate features that interfere with the core use cases.
</p><p>
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. However, the
document could use a serious audit to be sure it makes sense to do
so. Also, they are not capitalized.
</p><div class="sect2" title="Protocol and Specification Stability"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="stability"></a>Protocol and Specification Stability</h3></div></div></div><p>
The D-Bus protocol is frozen (only compatible extensions are allowed) as
of November 8, 2006. However, this specification could still use a fair
bit of work to make interoperable reimplementation possible without
reference to the D-Bus reference implementation. Thus, this
specification is not marked 1.0. To mark it 1.0, we'd like to see
someone invest significant effort in clarifying the specification
language, and growing the specification to cover more aspects of the
reference implementation's behavior.
</p><p>
Until this work is complete, any attempt to reimplement D-Bus will
probably require looking at the reference implementation and/or asking
questions on the D-Bus mailing list about intended behavior.
Questions on the list are very welcome.
</p><p>
Nonetheless, this document should be a useful starting point and is
to our knowledge accurate, though incomplete.
</p></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Message Protocol"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="message-protocol"></a>Message Protocol</h2></div></div></div><p>
A <em class="firstterm">message</em> consists of a
<em class="firstterm">header</em> and a <em class="firstterm">body</em>. If you
think of a message as a package, the header is the address, and the body
contains the package contents. The message delivery system uses the header
information to figure out where to send the message and how to interpret
it; the recipient interprets the body of the message.
</p><p>
The body of the message is made up of zero or more
<em class="firstterm">arguments</em>, which are typed values, such as an
integer or a byte array.
</p><p>
Both header and body use the same type system and format for
serializing data. Each type of value has a wire format.
Converting a value from some other representation into the wire
format is called <em class="firstterm">marshaling</em> and converting
it back from the wire format is <em class="firstterm">unmarshaling</em>.
</p><div class="sect2" title="Type Signatures"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-signatures"></a>Type Signatures</h3></div></div></div><p>
The D-Bus protocol does not include type tags in the marshaled data; a
block of marshaled values must have a known <em class="firstterm">type
signature</em>. The type signature is made up of <em class="firstterm">type
codes</em>. A type code is an ASCII character representing the
type of a value. Because ASCII characters are used, the type signature
will always form a valid ASCII string. A simple string compare
determines whether two type signatures are equivalent.
</p><p>
As a simple example, the type code for 32-bit integer (<code class="literal">INT32</code>) is
the ASCII character 'i'. So the signature for a block of values
containing a single <code class="literal">INT32</code> would be:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"i"
</pre><p>
A block of values containing two <code class="literal">INT32</code> would have this signature:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"ii"
</pre><p>
</p><p>
All <em class="firstterm">basic</em> types work like
<code class="literal">INT32</code> in this example. To marshal and unmarshal
basic types, you simply read one value from the data
block corresponding to each type code in the signature.
In addition to basic types, there are four <em class="firstterm">container</em>
types: <code class="literal">STRUCT</code>, <code class="literal">ARRAY</code>, <code class="literal">VARIANT</code>,
and <code class="literal">DICT_ENTRY</code>.
</p><p>
<code class="literal">STRUCT</code> has a type code, ASCII character 'r', but this type
code does not appear in signatures. Instead, ASCII characters
'(' and ')' are used to mark the beginning and end of the struct.
So for example, a struct containing two integers would have this
signature:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"(ii)"
</pre><p>
Structs can be nested, so for example a struct containing
an integer and another struct:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"(i(ii))"
</pre><p>
The value block storing that struct would contain three integers; the
type signature allows you to distinguish "(i(ii))" from "((ii)i)" or
"(iii)" or "iii".
</p><p>
The <code class="literal">STRUCT</code> type code 'r' is not currently used in the D-Bus protocol,
but is useful in code that implements the protocol. This type code
is specified to allow such code to interoperate in non-protocol contexts.
</p><p>
Empty structures are not allowed; there must be at least one
type code between the parentheses.
</p><p>
<code class="literal">ARRAY</code> has ASCII character 'a' as type code. The array type code must be
followed by a <em class="firstterm">single complete type</em>. The single
complete type following the array is the type of each array element. So
the simple example is:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"ai"
</pre><p>
which is an array of 32-bit integers. But an array can be of any type,
such as this array-of-struct-with-two-int32-fields:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"a(ii)"
</pre><p>
Or this array of array of integer:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"aai"
</pre><p>
</p><p>
The phrase <em class="firstterm">single complete type</em> deserves some
definition. A single complete type is a basic type code, a variant type code,
an array with its element type, or a struct with its fields.
So the following signatures are not single complete types:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"aa"
</pre><p>
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"(ii"
</pre><p>
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"ii)"
</pre><p>
And the following signatures contain multiple complete types:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"ii"
</pre><p>
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"aiai"
</pre><p>
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"(ii)(ii)"
</pre><p>
Note however that a single complete type may <span class="emphasis"><em>contain</em></span>
multiple other single complete types.
</p><p>
<code class="literal">VARIANT</code> has ASCII character 'v' as its type code. A marshaled value of
type <code class="literal">VARIANT</code> will have the signature of a single complete type as part
of the <span class="emphasis"><em>value</em></span>. This signature will be followed by a
marshaled value of that type.
</p><p>
A <code class="literal">DICT_ENTRY</code> works exactly like a struct, but rather
than parentheses it uses curly braces, and it has more restrictions.
The restrictions are: it occurs only as an array element type; it has
exactly two single complete types inside the curly braces; the first
single complete type (the "key") must be a basic type rather than a
container type. Implementations must not accept dict entries outside of
arrays, must not accept dict entries with zero, one, or more than two
fields, and must not accept dict entries with non-basic-typed keys. A
dict entry is always a key-value pair.
</p><p>
The first field in the <code class="literal">DICT_ENTRY</code> is always the key.
A message is considered corrupt if the same key occurs twice in the same
array of <code class="literal">DICT_ENTRY</code>. However, for performance reasons
implementations are not required to reject dicts with duplicate keys.
</p><p>
In most languages, an array of dict entry would be represented as a
map, hash table, or dict object.
</p><p>
The following table summarizes the D-Bus types.
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Conventional Name</th><th>Code</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><code class="literal">INVALID</code></td><td>0 (ASCII NUL)</td><td>Not a valid type code, used to terminate signatures</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">BYTE</code></td><td>121 (ASCII 'y')</td><td>8-bit unsigned integer</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">BOOLEAN</code></td><td>98 (ASCII 'b')</td><td>Boolean value, 0 is <code class="literal">FALSE</code> and 1 is <code class="literal">TRUE</code>. Everything else is invalid.</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">INT16</code></td><td>110 (ASCII 'n')</td><td>16-bit signed integer</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">UINT16</code></td><td>113 (ASCII 'q')</td><td>16-bit unsigned integer</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">INT32</code></td><td>105 (ASCII 'i')</td><td>32-bit signed integer</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">UINT32</code></td><td>117 (ASCII 'u')</td><td>32-bit unsigned integer</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">INT64</code></td><td>120 (ASCII 'x')</td><td>64-bit signed integer</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">UINT64</code></td><td>116 (ASCII 't')</td><td>64-bit unsigned integer</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">DOUBLE</code></td><td>100 (ASCII 'd')</td><td>IEEE 754 double</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">STRING</code></td><td>115 (ASCII 's')</td><td>UTF-8 string (<span class="emphasis"><em>must</em></span> be valid UTF-8). Must be nul terminated and contain no other nul bytes.</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">OBJECT_PATH</code></td><td>111 (ASCII 'o')</td><td>Name of an object instance</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">SIGNATURE</code></td><td>103 (ASCII 'g')</td><td>A type signature</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">ARRAY</code></td><td>97 (ASCII 'a')</td><td>Array</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">STRUCT</code></td><td>114 (ASCII 'r'), 40 (ASCII '('), 41 (ASCII ')')</td><td>Struct</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">VARIANT</code></td><td>118 (ASCII 'v') </td><td>Variant type (the type of the value is part of the value itself)</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">DICT_ENTRY</code></td><td>101 (ASCII 'e'), 123 (ASCII '{'), 125 (ASCII '}') </td><td>Entry in a dict or map (array of key-value pairs)</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">UNIX_FD</code></td><td>104 (ASCII 'h')</td><td>Unix file descriptor</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Marshaling (Wire Format)"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-marshaling"></a>Marshaling (Wire Format)</h3></div></div></div><p>
Given a type signature, a block of bytes can be converted into typed
values. This section describes the format of the block of bytes. Byte
order and alignment issues are handled uniformly for all D-Bus types.
</p><p>
A block of bytes has an associated byte order. The byte order
has to be discovered in some way; for D-Bus messages, the
byte order is part of the message header as described in
<a class="xref" href="#message-protocol-messages" title="Message Format">the section called &#8220;Message Format&#8221;</a>. For now, assume
that the byte order is known to be either little endian or big
endian.
</p><p>
Each value in a block of bytes is aligned "naturally," for example
4-byte values are aligned to a 4-byte boundary, and 8-byte values to an
8-byte boundary. To properly align a value, <em class="firstterm">alignment
padding</em> may be necessary. The alignment padding must always
be the minimum required padding to properly align the following value;
and it must always be made up of nul bytes. The alignment padding must
not be left uninitialized (it can't contain garbage), and more padding
than required must not be used.
</p><p>
Given all this, the types are marshaled on the wire as follows:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Conventional Name</th><th>Encoding</th><th>Alignment</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><code class="literal">INVALID</code></td><td>Not applicable; cannot be marshaled.</td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">BYTE</code></td><td>A single 8-bit byte.</td><td>1</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">BOOLEAN</code></td><td>As for <code class="literal">UINT32</code>, but only 0 and 1 are valid values.</td><td>4</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">INT16</code></td><td>16-bit signed integer in the message's byte order.</td><td>2</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">UINT16</code></td><td>16-bit unsigned integer in the message's byte order.</td><td>2</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">INT32</code></td><td>32-bit signed integer in the message's byte order.</td><td>4</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">UINT32</code></td><td>32-bit unsigned integer in the message's byte order.</td><td>4</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">INT64</code></td><td>64-bit signed integer in the message's byte order.</td><td>8</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">UINT64</code></td><td>64-bit unsigned integer in the message's byte order.</td><td>8</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">DOUBLE</code></td><td>64-bit IEEE 754 double in the message's byte order.</td><td>8</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">STRING</code></td><td>A <code class="literal">UINT32</code> indicating the string's
length in bytes excluding its terminating nul, followed by
non-nul string data of the given length, followed by a terminating nul
byte.
</td><td>
4 (for the length)
</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">OBJECT_PATH</code></td><td>Exactly the same as <code class="literal">STRING</code> except the
content must be a valid object path (see below).
</td><td>
4 (for the length)
</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">SIGNATURE</code></td><td>The same as <code class="literal">STRING</code> except the length is a single
byte (thus signatures have a maximum length of 255)
and the content must be a valid signature (see below).
</td><td>
1
</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">ARRAY</code></td><td>
A <code class="literal">UINT32</code> giving the length of the array data in bytes, followed by
alignment padding to the alignment boundary of the array element type,
followed by each array element. The array length is from the
end of the alignment padding to the end of the last element,
i.e. it does not include the padding after the length,
or any padding after the last element.
Arrays have a maximum length defined to be 2 to the 26th power or
67108864. Implementations must not send or accept arrays exceeding this
length.
</td><td>
4 (for the length)
</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">STRUCT</code></td><td>
A struct must start on an 8-byte boundary regardless of the
type of the struct fields. The struct value consists of each
field marshaled in sequence starting from that 8-byte
alignment boundary.
</td><td>
8
</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">VARIANT</code></td><td>
A variant type has a marshaled
<code class="literal">SIGNATURE</code> followed by a marshaled
value with the type given in the signature. Unlike
a message signature, the variant signature can
contain only a single complete type. So "i", "ai"
or "(ii)" is OK, but "ii" is not. Use of variants may not
cause a total message depth to be larger than 64, including
other container types such as structures.
</td><td>
1 (alignment of the signature)
</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">DICT_ENTRY</code></td><td>
Identical to STRUCT.
</td><td>
8
</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">UNIX_FD</code></td><td>32-bit unsigned integer in the message's byte
order. The actual file descriptors need to be
transferred out-of-band via some platform specific
mechanism. On the wire, values of this type store the index to the
file descriptor in the array of file descriptors that
accompany the message.</td><td>4</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><div class="sect3" title="Valid Object Paths"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-marshaling-object-path"></a>Valid Object Paths</h4></div></div></div><p>
An object path is a name used to refer to an object instance.
Conceptually, each participant in a D-Bus message exchange may have
any number of object instances (think of C++ or Java objects) and each
such instance will have a path. Like a filesystem, the object
instances in an application form a hierarchical tree.
</p><p>
The following rules define a valid object path. Implementations must
not send or accept messages with invalid object paths.
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
The path may be of any length.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The path must begin with an ASCII '/' (integer 47) character,
and must consist of elements separated by slash characters.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Each element must only contain the ASCII characters
"[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_"
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
No element may be the empty string.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Multiple '/' characters cannot occur in sequence.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
A trailing '/' character is not allowed unless the
path is the root path (a single '/' character).
</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="Valid Signatures"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-marshaling-signature"></a>Valid Signatures</h4></div></div></div><p>
An implementation must not send or accept invalid signatures.
Valid signatures will conform to the following rules:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
The signature ends with a nul byte.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The signature is a list of single complete types.
Arrays must have element types, and structs must
have both open and close parentheses.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Only type codes and open and close parentheses are
allowed in the signature. The <code class="literal">STRUCT</code> type code
is not allowed in signatures, because parentheses
are used instead.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The maximum depth of container type nesting is 32 array type
codes and 32 open parentheses. This implies that the maximum
total depth of recursion is 64, for an "array of array of array
of ... struct of struct of struct of ..." where there are 32
array and 32 struct.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The maximum length of a signature is 255.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Signatures must be nul-terminated.
</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p></div></div><div class="sect2" title="Message Format"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-messages"></a>Message Format</h3></div></div></div><p>
A message consists of a header and a body. The header is a block of
values with a fixed signature and meaning. The body is a separate block
of values, with a signature specified in the header.
</p><p>
The length of the header must be a multiple of 8, allowing the body to
begin on an 8-byte boundary when storing the entire message in a single
buffer. If the header does not naturally end on an 8-byte boundary
up to 7 bytes of nul-initialized alignment padding must be added.
</p><p>
The message body need not end on an 8-byte boundary.
</p><p>
The maximum length of a message, including header, header alignment padding,
and body is 2 to the 27th power or 134217728. Implementations must not
send or accept messages exceeding this size.
</p><p>
The signature of the header is:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
"yyyyuua(yv)"
</pre><p>
Written out more readably, this is:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
BYTE, BYTE, BYTE, BYTE, UINT32, UINT32, ARRAY of STRUCT of (BYTE,VARIANT)
</pre><p>
</p><p>
These values have the following meanings:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Value</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>1st <code class="literal">BYTE</code></td><td>Endianness flag; ASCII 'l' for little-endian
or ASCII 'B' for big-endian. Both header and body are
in this endianness.</td></tr><tr><td>2nd <code class="literal">BYTE</code></td><td><em class="firstterm">Message type</em>. Unknown types must be ignored.
Currently-defined types are described below.
</td></tr><tr><td>3rd <code class="literal">BYTE</code></td><td>Bitwise OR of flags. Unknown flags
must be ignored. Currently-defined flags are described below.
</td></tr><tr><td>4th <code class="literal">BYTE</code></td><td>Major protocol version of the sending application. If
the major protocol version of the receiving application does not
match, the applications will not be able to communicate and the
D-Bus connection must be disconnected. The major protocol
version for this version of the specification is 1.
</td></tr><tr><td>1st <code class="literal">UINT32</code></td><td>Length in bytes of the message body, starting
from the end of the header. The header ends after
its alignment padding to an 8-boundary.
</td></tr><tr><td>2nd <code class="literal">UINT32</code></td><td>The serial of this message, used as a cookie
by the sender to identify the reply corresponding
to this request. This must not be zero.
</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">ARRAY</code> of <code class="literal">STRUCT</code> of (<code class="literal">BYTE</code>,<code class="literal">VARIANT</code>)</td><td>An array of zero or more <em class="firstterm">header
fields</em> where the byte is the field code, and the
variant is the field value. The message type determines
which fields are required.
</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
<em class="firstterm">Message types</em> that can appear in the second byte
of the header are:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Conventional name</th><th>Decimal value</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><code class="literal">INVALID</code></td><td>0</td><td>This is an invalid type.</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code></td><td>1</td><td>Method call.</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code></td><td>2</td><td>Method reply with returned data.</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">ERROR</code></td><td>3</td><td>Error reply. If the first argument exists and is a
string, it is an error message.</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">SIGNAL</code></td><td>4</td><td>Signal emission.</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
Flags that can appear in the third byte of the header:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Conventional name</th><th>Hex value</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><code class="literal">NO_REPLY_EXPECTED</code></td><td>0x1</td><td>This message does not expect method return replies or
error replies; the reply can be omitted as an
optimization. However, it is compliant with this specification
to return the reply despite this flag and the only harm
from doing so is extra network traffic.
</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">NO_AUTO_START</code></td><td>0x2</td><td>The bus must not launch an owner
for the destination name in response to this message.
</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><div class="sect3" title="Header Fields"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-header-fields"></a>Header Fields</h4></div></div></div><p>
The array at the end of the header contains <em class="firstterm">header
fields</em>, where each field is a 1-byte field code followed
by a field value. A header must contain the required header fields for
its message type, and zero or more of any optional header
fields. Future versions of this protocol specification may add new
fields. Implementations must ignore fields they do not
understand. Implementations must not invent their own header fields;
only changes to this specification may introduce new header fields.
</p><p>
Again, if an implementation sees a header field code that it does not
expect, it must ignore that field, as it will be part of a new
(but compatible) version of this specification. This also applies
to known header fields appearing in unexpected messages, for
example: if a signal has a reply serial it must be ignored
even though it has no meaning as of this version of the spec.
</p><p>
However, implementations must not send or accept known header fields
with the wrong type stored in the field value. So for example a
message with an <code class="literal">INTERFACE</code> field of type
<code class="literal">UINT32</code> would be considered corrupt.
</p><p>
Here are the currently-defined header fields:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Conventional Name</th><th>Decimal Code</th><th>Type</th><th>Required In</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><code class="literal">INVALID</code></td><td>0</td><td>N/A</td><td>not allowed</td><td>Not a valid field name (error if it appears in a message)</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">PATH</code></td><td>1</td><td><code class="literal">OBJECT_PATH</code></td><td><code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code>, <code class="literal">SIGNAL</code></td><td>The object to send a call to,
or the object a signal is emitted from.
The special path
<code class="literal">/org/freedesktop/DBus/Local</code> is reserved;
implementations should not send messages with this path,
and the reference implementation of the bus daemon will
disconnect any application that attempts to do so.
</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">INTERFACE</code></td><td>2</td><td><code class="literal">STRING</code></td><td><code class="literal">SIGNAL</code></td><td>
The interface to invoke a method call on, or
that a signal is emitted from. Optional for
method calls, required for signals.
The special interface
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Local</code> is reserved;
implementations should not send messages with this
interface, and the reference implementation of the bus
daemon will disconnect any application that attempts to
do so.
</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">MEMBER</code></td><td>3</td><td><code class="literal">STRING</code></td><td><code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code>, <code class="literal">SIGNAL</code></td><td>The member, either the method name or signal name.</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">ERROR_NAME</code></td><td>4</td><td><code class="literal">STRING</code></td><td><code class="literal">ERROR</code></td><td>The name of the error that occurred, for errors</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">REPLY_SERIAL</code></td><td>5</td><td><code class="literal">UINT32</code></td><td><code class="literal">ERROR</code>, <code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code></td><td>The serial number of the message this message is a reply
to. (The serial number is the second <code class="literal">UINT32</code> in the header.)</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">DESTINATION</code></td><td>6</td><td><code class="literal">STRING</code></td><td>optional</td><td>The name of the connection this message is intended for.
Only used in combination with the message bus, see
<a class="xref" href="#message-bus" title="Message Bus Specification">the section called &#8220;Message Bus Specification&#8221;</a>.</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">SENDER</code></td><td>7</td><td><code class="literal">STRING</code></td><td>optional</td><td>Unique name of the sending connection.
The message bus fills in this field so it is reliable; the field is
only meaningful in combination with the message bus.</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">SIGNATURE</code></td><td>8</td><td><code class="literal">SIGNATURE</code></td><td>optional</td><td>The signature of the message body.
If omitted, it is assumed to be the
empty signature "" (i.e. the body must be 0-length).</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">UNIX_FDS</code></td><td>9</td><td><code class="literal">UINT32</code></td><td>optional</td><td>The number of Unix file descriptors that
accompany the message. If omitted, it is assumed
that no Unix file descriptors accompany the
message. The actual file descriptors need to be
transferred via platform specific mechanism
out-of-band. They must be sent at the same time as
part of the message itself. They may not be sent
before the first byte of the message itself is
transferred or after the last byte of the message
itself.</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p></div></div><div class="sect2" title="Valid Names"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-names"></a>Valid Names</h3></div></div></div><p>
The various names in D-Bus messages have some restrictions.
</p><p>
There is a <em class="firstterm">maximum name length</em>
of 255 which applies to bus names, interfaces, and members.
</p><div class="sect3" title="Interface names"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-names-interface"></a>Interface names</h4></div></div></div><p>
Interfaces have names with type <code class="literal">STRING</code>, meaning that
they must be valid UTF-8. However, there are also some
additional restrictions that apply to interface names
specifically:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>Interface names are composed of 1 or more elements separated by
a period ('.') character. All elements must contain at least
one character.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Each element must only contain the ASCII characters
"[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_" and must not begin with a digit.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Interface names must contain at least one '.' (period)
character (and thus at least two elements).
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Interface names must not begin with a '.' (period) character.</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Interface names must not exceed the maximum name length.</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="Bus names"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-names-bus"></a>Bus names</h4></div></div></div><p>
Connections have one or more bus names associated with them.
A connection has exactly one bus name that is a unique connection
name. The unique connection name remains with the connection for
its entire lifetime.
A bus name is of type <code class="literal">STRING</code>,
meaning that it must be valid UTF-8. However, there are also
some additional restrictions that apply to bus names
specifically:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>Bus names that start with a colon (':')
character are unique connection names.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Bus names are composed of 1 or more elements separated by
a period ('.') character. All elements must contain at least
one character.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Each element must only contain the ASCII characters
"[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_-". Only elements that are part of a unique
connection name may begin with a digit, elements in
other bus names must not begin with a digit.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Bus names must contain at least one '.' (period)
character (and thus at least two elements).
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Bus names must not begin with a '.' (period) character.</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Bus names must not exceed the maximum name length.</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p><p>
Note that the hyphen ('-') character is allowed in bus names but
not in interface names.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="Member names"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-names-member"></a>Member names</h4></div></div></div><p>
Member (i.e. method or signal) names:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>Must only contain the ASCII characters
"[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_" and may not begin with a
digit.</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Must not contain the '.' (period) character.</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Must not exceed the maximum name length.</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Must be at least 1 byte in length.</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="Error names"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-names-error"></a>Error names</h4></div></div></div><p>
Error names have the same restrictions as interface names.
</p></div></div><div class="sect2" title="Message Types"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-types"></a>Message Types</h3></div></div></div><p>
Each of the message types (<code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code>, <code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code>, <code class="literal">ERROR</code>, and
<code class="literal">SIGNAL</code>) has its own expected usage conventions and header fields.
This section describes these conventions.
</p><div class="sect3" title="Method Calls"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-types-method"></a>Method Calls</h4></div></div></div><p>
Some messages invoke an operation on a remote object. These are
called method call messages and have the type tag <code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code>. Such
messages map naturally to methods on objects in a typical program.
</p><p>
A method call message is required to have a <code class="literal">MEMBER</code> header field
indicating the name of the method. Optionally, the message has an
<code class="literal">INTERFACE</code> field giving the interface the method is a part of. In the
absence of an <code class="literal">INTERFACE</code> field, if two interfaces on the same object have
a method with the same name, it is undefined which of the two methods
will be invoked. Implementations may also choose to return an error in
this ambiguous case. However, if a method name is unique
implementations must not require an interface field.
</p><p>
Method call messages also include a <code class="literal">PATH</code> field
indicating the object to invoke the method on. If the call is passing
through a message bus, the message will also have a
<code class="literal">DESTINATION</code> field giving the name of the connection
to receive the message.
</p><p>
When an application handles a method call message, it is required to
return a reply. The reply is identified by a <code class="literal">REPLY_SERIAL</code> header field
indicating the serial number of the <code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code> being replied to. The
reply can have one of two types; either <code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code> or <code class="literal">ERROR</code>.
</p><p>
If the reply has type <code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code>, the arguments to the reply message
are the return value(s) or "out parameters" of the method call.
If the reply has type <code class="literal">ERROR</code>, then an "exception" has been thrown,
and the call fails; no return value will be provided. It makes
no sense to send multiple replies to the same method call.
</p><p>
Even if a method call has no return values, a <code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code>
reply is required, so the caller will know the method
was successfully processed.
</p><p>
The <code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code> or <code class="literal">ERROR</code> reply message must have the <code class="literal">REPLY_SERIAL</code>
header field.
</p><p>
If a <code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code> message has the flag <code class="literal">NO_REPLY_EXPECTED</code>,
then as an optimization the application receiving the method
call may choose to omit the reply message (regardless of
whether the reply would have been <code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code> or <code class="literal">ERROR</code>).
However, it is also acceptable to ignore the <code class="literal">NO_REPLY_EXPECTED</code>
flag and reply anyway.
</p><p>
Unless a message has the flag <code class="literal">NO_AUTO_START</code>, if the
destination name does not exist then a program to own the destination
name will be started before the message is delivered. The message
will be held until the new program is successfully started or has
failed to start; in case of failure, an error will be returned. This
flag is only relevant in the context of a message bus, it is ignored
during one-to-one communication with no intermediate bus.
</p><div class="sect4" title="Mapping method calls to native APIs"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h5 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-types-method-apis"></a>Mapping method calls to native APIs</h5></div></div></div><p>
APIs for D-Bus may map method calls to a method call in a specific
programming language, such as C++, or may map a method call written
in an IDL to a D-Bus message.
</p><p>
In APIs of this nature, arguments to a method are often termed "in"
(which implies sent in the <code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code>), or "out" (which implies
returned in the <code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code>). Some APIs such as CORBA also have
"inout" arguments, which are both sent and received, i.e. the caller
passes in a value which is modified. Mapped to D-Bus, an "inout"
argument is equivalent to an "in" argument, followed by an "out"
argument. You can't pass things "by reference" over the wire, so
"inout" is purely an illusion of the in-process API.
</p><p>
Given a method with zero or one return values, followed by zero or more
arguments, where each argument may be "in", "out", or "inout", the
caller constructs a message by appending each "in" or "inout" argument,
in order. "out" arguments are not represented in the caller's message.
</p><p>
The recipient constructs a reply by appending first the return value
if any, then each "out" or "inout" argument, in order.
"in" arguments are not represented in the reply message.
</p><p>
Error replies are normally mapped to exceptions in languages that have
exceptions.
</p><p>
In converting from native APIs to D-Bus, it is perhaps nice to
map D-Bus naming conventions ("FooBar") to native conventions
such as "fooBar" or "foo_bar" automatically. This is OK
as long as you can say that the native API is one that
was specifically written for D-Bus. It makes the most sense
when writing object implementations that will be exported
over the bus. Object proxies used to invoke remote D-Bus
objects probably need the ability to call any D-Bus method,
and thus a magic name mapping like this could be a problem.
</p><p>
This specification doesn't require anything of native API bindings;
the preceding is only a suggested convention for consistency
among bindings.
</p></div></div><div class="sect3" title="Signal Emission"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-types-signal"></a>Signal Emission</h4></div></div></div><p>
Unlike method calls, signal emissions have no replies.
A signal emission is simply a single message of type <code class="literal">SIGNAL</code>.
It must have three header fields: <code class="literal">PATH</code> giving the object
the signal was emitted from, plus <code class="literal">INTERFACE</code> and <code class="literal">MEMBER</code> giving
the fully-qualified name of the signal. The <code class="literal">INTERFACE</code> header is required
for signals, though it is optional for method calls.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="Errors"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-types-errors"></a>Errors</h4></div></div></div><p>
Messages of type <code class="literal">ERROR</code> are most commonly replies
to a <code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code>, but may be returned in reply
to any kind of message. The message bus for example
will return an <code class="literal">ERROR</code> in reply to a signal emission if
the bus does not have enough memory to send the signal.
</p><p>
An <code class="literal">ERROR</code> may have any arguments, but if the first
argument is a <code class="literal">STRING</code>, it must be an error message.
The error message may be logged or shown to the user
in some way.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="Notation in this document"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-types-notation"></a>Notation in this document</h4></div></div></div><p>
This document uses a simple pseudo-IDL to describe particular method
calls and signals. Here is an example of a method call:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
org.freedesktop.DBus.StartServiceByName (in STRING name, in UINT32 flags,
out UINT32 resultcode)
</pre><p>
This means <code class="literal">INTERFACE</code> = org.freedesktop.DBus, <code class="literal">MEMBER</code> = StartServiceByName,
<code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code> arguments are <code class="literal">STRING</code> and <code class="literal">UINT32</code>, <code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code> argument
is <code class="literal">UINT32</code>. Remember that the <code class="literal">MEMBER</code> field can't contain any '.' (period)
characters so it's known that the last part of the name in
the "IDL" is the member name.
</p><p>
In C++ that might end up looking like this:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
unsigned int org::freedesktop::DBus::StartServiceByName (const char *name,
unsigned int flags);
</pre><p>
or equally valid, the return value could be done as an argument:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
void org::freedesktop::DBus::StartServiceByName (const char *name,
unsigned int flags,
unsigned int *resultcode);
</pre><p>
It's really up to the API designer how they want to make
this look. You could design an API where the namespace wasn't used
in C++, using STL or Qt, using varargs, or whatever you wanted.
</p><p>
Signals are written as follows:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
org.freedesktop.DBus.NameLost (STRING name)
</pre><p>
Signals don't specify "in" vs. "out" because only
a single direction is possible.
</p><p>
It isn't especially encouraged to use this lame pseudo-IDL in actual
API implementations; you might use the native notation for the
language you're using, or you might use COM or CORBA IDL, for example.
</p></div></div><div class="sect2" title="Invalid Protocol and Spec Extensions"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-protocol-handling-invalid"></a>Invalid Protocol and Spec Extensions</h3></div></div></div><p>
For security reasons, the D-Bus protocol should be strictly parsed and
validated, with the exception of defined extension points. Any invalid
protocol or spec violations should result in immediately dropping the
connection without notice to the other end. Exceptions should be
carefully considered, e.g. an exception may be warranted for a
well-understood idiosyncrasy of a widely-deployed implementation. In
cases where the other end of a connection is 100% trusted and known to
be friendly, skipping validation for performance reasons could also make
sense in certain cases.
</p><p>
Generally speaking violations of the "must" requirements in this spec
should be considered possible attempts to exploit security, and violations
of the "should" suggestions should be considered legitimate (though perhaps
they should generate an error in some cases).
</p><p>
The following extension points are built in to D-Bus on purpose and must
not be treated as invalid protocol. The extension points are intended
for use by future versions of this spec, they are not intended for third
parties. At the moment, the only way a third party could extend D-Bus
without breaking interoperability would be to introduce a way to negotiate new
feature support as part of the auth protocol, using EXTENSION_-prefixed
commands. There is not yet a standard way to negotiate features.
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
In the authentication protocol (see <a class="xref" href="#auth-protocol" title="Authentication Protocol">the section called &#8220;Authentication Protocol&#8221;</a>) unknown
commands result in an ERROR rather than a disconnect. This enables
future extensions to the protocol. Commands starting with EXTENSION_ are
reserved for third parties.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The authentication protocol supports pluggable auth mechanisms.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The address format (see <a class="xref" href="#addresses" title="Server Addresses">the section called &#8220;Server Addresses&#8221;</a>) supports new
kinds of transport.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Messages with an unknown type (something other than
<code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code>, <code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code>,
<code class="literal">ERROR</code>, <code class="literal">SIGNAL</code>) are ignored.
Unknown-type messages must still be well-formed in the same way
as the known messages, however. They still have the normal
header and body.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Header fields with an unknown or unexpected field code must be ignored,
though again they must still be well-formed.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
New standard interfaces (with new methods and signals) can of course be added.
</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Authentication Protocol"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="auth-protocol"></a>Authentication Protocol</h2></div></div></div><p>
Before the flow of messages begins, two applications must
authenticate. A simple plain-text protocol is used for
authentication; this protocol is a SASL profile, and maps fairly
directly from the SASL specification. The message encoding is
NOT used here, only plain text messages.
</p><p>
In examples, "C:" and "S:" indicate lines sent by the client and
server respectively.
</p><div class="sect2" title="Protocol Overview"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-protocol-overview"></a>Protocol Overview</h3></div></div></div><p>
The protocol is a line-based protocol, where each line ends with
\r\n. Each line begins with an all-caps ASCII command name containing
only the character range [A-Z_], a space, then any arguments for the
command, then the \r\n ending the line. The protocol is
case-sensitive. All bytes must be in the ASCII character set.
Commands from the client to the server are as follows:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>AUTH [mechanism] [initial-response]</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>CANCEL</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>BEGIN</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>DATA &lt;data in hex encoding&gt;</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>ERROR [human-readable error explanation]</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD</p></li></ul></div><p>
From server to client are as follows:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>REJECTED &lt;space-separated list of mechanism names&gt;</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>OK &lt;GUID in hex&gt;</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>DATA &lt;data in hex encoding&gt;</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>ERROR</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>AGREE_UNIX_FD</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p><p>
Unofficial extensions to the command set must begin with the letters
"EXTENSION_", to avoid conflicts with future official commands.
For example, "EXTENSION_COM_MYDOMAIN_DO_STUFF".
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Special credentials-passing nul byte"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-nul-byte"></a>Special credentials-passing nul byte</h3></div></div></div><p>
Immediately after connecting to the server, the client must send a
single nul byte. This byte may be accompanied by credentials
information on some operating systems that use sendmsg() with
SCM_CREDS or SCM_CREDENTIALS to pass credentials over UNIX domain
sockets. However, the nul byte must be sent even on other kinds of
socket, and even on operating systems that do not require a byte to be
sent in order to transmit credentials. The text protocol described in
this document begins after the single nul byte. If the first byte
received from the client is not a nul byte, the server may disconnect
that client.
</p><p>
A nul byte in any context other than the initial byte is an error;
the protocol is ASCII-only.
</p><p>
The credentials sent along with the nul byte may be used with the
SASL mechanism EXTERNAL.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="AUTH command"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-command-auth"></a>AUTH command</h3></div></div></div><p>
If an AUTH command has no arguments, it is a request to list
available mechanisms. The server must respond with a REJECTED
command listing the mechanisms it understands, or with an error.
</p><p>
If an AUTH command specifies a mechanism, and the server supports
said mechanism, the server should begin exchanging SASL
challenge-response data with the client using DATA commands.
</p><p>
If the server does not support the mechanism given in the AUTH
command, it must send either a REJECTED command listing the mechanisms
it does support, or an error.
</p><p>
If the [initial-response] argument is provided, it is intended for use
with mechanisms that have no initial challenge (or an empty initial
challenge), as if it were the argument to an initial DATA command. If
the selected mechanism has an initial challenge and [initial-response]
was provided, the server should reject authentication by sending
REJECTED.
</p><p>
If authentication succeeds after exchanging DATA commands,
an OK command must be sent to the client.
</p><p>
The first octet received by the server after the \r\n of the BEGIN
command from the client must be the first octet of the
authenticated/encrypted stream of D-Bus messages.
</p><p>
If BEGIN is received by the server, the first octet received
by the client after the \r\n of the OK command must be the
first octet of the authenticated/encrypted stream of D-Bus
messages.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="CANCEL Command"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-command-cancel"></a>CANCEL Command</h3></div></div></div><p>
At any time up to sending the BEGIN command, the client may send a
CANCEL command. On receiving the CANCEL command, the server must
send a REJECTED command and abort the current authentication
exchange.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="DATA Command"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-command-data"></a>DATA Command</h3></div></div></div><p>
The DATA command may come from either client or server, and simply
contains a hex-encoded block of data to be interpreted
according to the SASL mechanism in use.
</p><p>
Some SASL mechanisms support sending an "empty string";
FIXME we need some way to do this.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="BEGIN Command"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-command-begin"></a>BEGIN Command</h3></div></div></div><p>
The BEGIN command acknowledges that the client has received an
OK command from the server, and that the stream of messages
is about to begin.
</p><p>
The first octet received by the server after the \r\n of the BEGIN
command from the client must be the first octet of the
authenticated/encrypted stream of D-Bus messages.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="REJECTED Command"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-command-rejected"></a>REJECTED Command</h3></div></div></div><p>
The REJECTED command indicates that the current authentication
exchange has failed, and further exchange of DATA is inappropriate.
The client would normally try another mechanism, or try providing
different responses to challenges.
</p><p>
Optionally, the REJECTED command has a space-separated list of
available auth mechanisms as arguments. If a server ever provides
a list of supported mechanisms, it must provide the same list
each time it sends a REJECTED message. Clients are free to
ignore all lists received after the first.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="OK Command"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-command-ok"></a>OK Command</h3></div></div></div><p>
The OK command indicates that the client has been
authenticated. The client may now proceed with negotiating
Unix file descriptor passing. To do that it shall send
NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD to the server.
</p><p>
Otherwise, the client must respond to the OK command by
sending a BEGIN command, followed by its stream of messages,
or by disconnecting. The server must not accept additional
commands using this protocol after the BEGIN command has been
received. Further communication will be a stream of D-Bus
messages (optionally encrypted, as negotiated) rather than
this protocol.
</p><p>
If a client sends BEGIN the first octet received by the client
after the \r\n of the OK command must be the first octet of
the authenticated/encrypted stream of D-Bus messages.
</p><p>
The OK command has one argument, which is the GUID of the server.
See <a class="xref" href="#addresses" title="Server Addresses">the section called &#8220;Server Addresses&#8221;</a> for more on server GUIDs.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="ERROR Command"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-command-error"></a>ERROR Command</h3></div></div></div><p>
The ERROR command indicates that either server or client did not
know a command, does not accept the given command in the current
context, or did not understand the arguments to the command. This
allows the protocol to be extended; a client or server can send a
command present or permitted only in new protocol versions, and if
an ERROR is received instead of an appropriate response, fall back
to using some other technique.
</p><p>
If an ERROR is sent, the server or client that sent the
error must continue as if the command causing the ERROR had never been
received. However, the the server or client receiving the error
should try something other than whatever caused the error;
if only canceling/rejecting the authentication.
</p><p>
If the D-Bus protocol changes incompatibly at some future time,
applications implementing the new protocol would probably be able to
check for support of the new protocol by sending a new command and
receiving an ERROR from applications that don't understand it. Thus the
ERROR feature of the auth protocol is an escape hatch that lets us
negotiate extensions or changes to the D-Bus protocol in the future.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD Command"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-command-negotiate-unix-fd"></a>NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD Command</h3></div></div></div><p>
The NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD command indicates that the client
supports Unix file descriptor passing. This command may only
be sent after the connection is authenticated, i.e. after OK
was received by the client. This command may only be sent on
transports that support Unix file descriptor passing.
</p><p>
On receiving NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD the server must respond with
either AGREE_UNIX_FD or ERROR. It shall respond the former if
the transport chosen supports Unix file descriptor passing and
the server supports this feature. It shall respond the latter
if the transport does not support Unix file descriptor
passing, the server does not support this feature, or the
server decides not to enable file descriptor passing due to
security or other reasons.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="AGREE_UNIX_FD Command"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-command-agree-unix-fd"></a>AGREE_UNIX_FD Command</h3></div></div></div><p>
The AGREE_UNIX_FD command indicates that the server supports
Unix file descriptor passing. This command may only be sent
after the connection is authenticated, and the client sent
NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD to enable Unix file descriptor passing. This
command may only be sent on transports that support Unix file
descriptor passing.
</p><p>
On receiving AGREE_UNIX_FD the client must respond with BEGIN,
followed by its stream of messages, or by disconnecting. The
server must not accept additional commands using this protocol
after the BEGIN command has been received. Further
communication will be a stream of D-Bus messages (optionally
encrypted, as negotiated) rather than this protocol.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Future Extensions"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-command-future"></a>Future Extensions</h3></div></div></div><p>
Future extensions to the authentication and negotiation
protocol are possible. For that new commands may be
introduced. If a client or server receives an unknown command
it shall respond with ERROR and not consider this fatal. New
commands may be introduced both before, and after
authentication, i.e. both before and after the OK command.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Authentication examples"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-examples"></a>Authentication examples</h3></div></div></div><p>
</p><div class="figure"><a name="idp5161344"></a><p class="title"><b>Figure 1. Example of successful magic cookie authentication</b></p><div class="figure-contents"><pre class="programlisting">
(MAGIC_COOKIE is a made up mechanism)
C: AUTH MAGIC_COOKIE 3138363935333137393635383634
S: OK 1234deadbeef
C: BEGIN
</pre></div></div><p><br class="figure-break">
</p><div class="figure"><a name="idp5163168"></a><p class="title"><b>Figure 2. Example of finding out mechanisms then picking one</b></p><div class="figure-contents"><pre class="programlisting">
C: AUTH
S: REJECTED KERBEROS_V4 SKEY
C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee
S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e
C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f
S: OK 1234deadbeef
C: BEGIN
</pre></div></div><p><br class="figure-break">
</p><div class="figure"><a name="idp5165072"></a><p class="title"><b>Figure 3. Example of client sends unknown command then falls back to regular auth</b></p><div class="figure-contents"><pre class="programlisting">
C: FOOBAR
S: ERROR
C: AUTH MAGIC_COOKIE 3736343435313230333039
S: OK 1234deadbeef
C: BEGIN
</pre></div></div><p><br class="figure-break">
</p><div class="figure"><a name="idp5166960"></a><p class="title"><b>Figure 4. Example of server doesn't support initial auth mechanism</b></p><div class="figure-contents"><pre class="programlisting">
C: AUTH MAGIC_COOKIE 3736343435313230333039
S: REJECTED KERBEROS_V4 SKEY
C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee
S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e
C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f
S: OK 1234deadbeef
C: BEGIN
</pre></div></div><p><br class="figure-break">
</p><div class="figure"><a name="idp5168976"></a><p class="title"><b>Figure 5. Example of wrong password or the like followed by successful retry</b></p><div class="figure-contents"><pre class="programlisting">
C: AUTH MAGIC_COOKIE 3736343435313230333039
S: REJECTED KERBEROS_V4 SKEY
C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee
S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e
C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f
S: REJECTED
C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee
S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e
C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f
S: OK 1234deadbeef
C: BEGIN
</pre></div></div><p><br class="figure-break">
</p><div class="figure"><a name="idp5171152"></a><p class="title"><b>Figure 6. Example of skey cancelled and restarted</b></p><div class="figure-contents"><pre class="programlisting">
C: AUTH MAGIC_COOKIE 3736343435313230333039
S: REJECTED KERBEROS_V4 SKEY
C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee
S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e
C: CANCEL
S: REJECTED
C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee
S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e
C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f
S: OK 1234deadbeef
C: BEGIN
</pre></div></div><p><br class="figure-break">
</p><div class="figure"><a name="idp5173216"></a><p class="title"><b>Figure 7. Example of successful magic cookie authentication with successful negotiation of Unix FD passing</b></p><div class="figure-contents"><pre class="programlisting">
(MAGIC_COOKIE is a made up mechanism)
C: AUTH MAGIC_COOKIE 3138363935333137393635383634
S: OK 1234deadbeef
C: NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD
S: AGREE_UNIX_FD
C: BEGIN
</pre></div></div><p><br class="figure-break">
</p><div class="figure"><a name="idp5175216"></a><p class="title"><b>Figure 8. Example of successful magic cookie authentication with unsuccessful negotiation of Unix FD passing</b></p><div class="figure-contents"><pre class="programlisting">
(MAGIC_COOKIE is a made up mechanism)
C: AUTH MAGIC_COOKIE 3138363935333137393635383634
S: OK 1234deadbeef
C: NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD
S: ERROR
C: BEGIN
</pre></div></div><p><br class="figure-break">
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Authentication state diagrams"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-states"></a>Authentication state diagrams</h3></div></div></div><p>
This section documents the auth protocol in terms of
a state machine for the client and the server. This is
probably the most robust way to implement the protocol.
</p><div class="sect3" title="Client states"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="auth-states-client"></a>Client states</h4></div></div></div><p>
To more precisely describe the interaction between the
protocol state machine and the authentication mechanisms the
following notation is used: MECH(CHALL) means that the
server challenge CHALL was fed to the mechanism MECH, which
returns one of
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
CONTINUE(RESP) means continue the auth conversation
and send RESP as the response to the server;
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
OK(RESP) means that after sending RESP to the server
the client side of the auth conversation is finished
and the server should return "OK";
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
ERROR means that CHALL was invalid and could not be
processed.
</p></li></ul></div><p>
Both RESP and CHALL may be empty.
</p><p>
The Client starts by getting an initial response from the
default mechanism and sends AUTH MECH RESP, or AUTH MECH if
the mechanism did not provide an initial response. If the
mechanism returns CONTINUE, the client starts in state
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForData</em></span>, if the mechanism
returns OK the client starts in state
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForOK</em></span>.
</p><p>
The client should keep track of available mechanisms and
which it mechanisms it has already attempted. This list is
used to decide which AUTH command to send. When the list is
exhausted, the client should give up and close the
connection.
</p><p title="WaitingForData"><b><span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForData</em></span></b>
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive DATA CHALL
</p><table border="0" summary="Simple list" class="simplelist"><tr><td>
MECH(CHALL) returns CONTINUE(RESP) &#8594; send
DATA RESP, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForData</em></span>
</td></tr><tr><td>
MECH(CHALL) returns OK(RESP) &#8594; send DATA
RESP, goto <span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForOK</em></span>
</td></tr><tr><td>
MECH(CHALL) returns ERROR &#8594; send ERROR
[msg], goto <span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForData</em></span>
</td></tr></table><p>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive REJECTED [mechs] &#8594;
send AUTH [next mech], goto
WaitingForData or <span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForOK</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive ERROR &#8594; send
CANCEL, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForReject</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive OK &#8594; send
BEGIN, terminate auth
conversation, authenticated
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive anything else &#8594; send
ERROR, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForData</em></span>
</p></li></ul></div><p title="WaitingForData">
</p><p title="WaitingForOK"><b><span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForOK</em></span></b>
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive OK &#8594; send BEGIN, terminate auth
conversation, <span class="emphasis"><em>authenticated</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive REJECT [mechs] &#8594; send AUTH [next mech],
goto <span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForData</em></span> or
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForOK</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive DATA &#8594; send CANCEL, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForReject</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive ERROR &#8594; send CANCEL, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForReject</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive anything else &#8594; send ERROR, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForOK</em></span>
</p></li></ul></div><p title="WaitingForOK">
</p><p title="WaitingForReject"><b><span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForReject</em></span></b>
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive REJECT [mechs] &#8594; send AUTH [next mech],
goto <span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForData</em></span> or
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForOK</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive anything else &#8594; terminate auth
conversation, disconnect
</p></li></ul></div><p title="WaitingForReject">
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="Server states"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="auth-states-server"></a>Server states</h4></div></div></div><p>
For the server MECH(RESP) means that the client response
RESP was fed to the the mechanism MECH, which returns one of
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
CONTINUE(CHALL) means continue the auth conversation and
send CHALL as the challenge to the client;
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
OK means that the client has been successfully
authenticated;
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
REJECT means that the client failed to authenticate or
there was an error in RESP.
</p></li></ul></div><p>
The server starts out in state
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForAuth</em></span>. If the client is
rejected too many times the server must disconnect the
client.
</p><p title="WaitingForAuth"><b><span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForAuth</em></span></b>
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive AUTH &#8594; send REJECTED [mechs], goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForAuth</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive AUTH MECH RESP
</p><table border="0" summary="Simple list" class="simplelist"><tr><td>
MECH not valid mechanism &#8594; send REJECTED
[mechs], goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForAuth</em></span>
</td></tr><tr><td>
MECH(RESP) returns CONTINUE(CHALL) &#8594; send
DATA CHALL, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForData</em></span>
</td></tr><tr><td>
MECH(RESP) returns OK &#8594; send OK, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForBegin</em></span>
</td></tr><tr><td>
MECH(RESP) returns REJECT &#8594; send REJECTED
[mechs], goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForAuth</em></span>
</td></tr></table><p>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive BEGIN &#8594; terminate
auth conversation, disconnect
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive ERROR &#8594; send REJECTED [mechs], goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForAuth</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive anything else &#8594; send
ERROR, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForAuth</em></span>
</p></li></ul></div><p title="WaitingForAuth">
</p><p title="WaitingForData"><b><span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForData</em></span></b>
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive DATA RESP
</p><table border="0" summary="Simple list" class="simplelist"><tr><td>
MECH(RESP) returns CONTINUE(CHALL) &#8594; send
DATA CHALL, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForData</em></span>
</td></tr><tr><td>
MECH(RESP) returns OK &#8594; send OK, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForBegin</em></span>
</td></tr><tr><td>
MECH(RESP) returns REJECT &#8594; send REJECTED
[mechs], goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForAuth</em></span>
</td></tr></table><p>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive BEGIN &#8594; terminate auth conversation,
disconnect
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive CANCEL &#8594; send REJECTED [mechs], goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForAuth</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive ERROR &#8594; send REJECTED [mechs], goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForAuth</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive anything else &#8594; send ERROR, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForData</em></span>
</p></li></ul></div><p title="WaitingForData">
</p><p title="WaitingForBegin"><b><span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForBegin</em></span></b>
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive BEGIN &#8594; terminate auth conversation,
client authenticated
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive CANCEL &#8594; send REJECTED [mechs], goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForAuth</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive ERROR &#8594; send REJECTED [mechs], goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForAuth</em></span>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Receive anything else &#8594; send ERROR, goto
<span class="emphasis"><em>WaitingForBegin</em></span>
</p></li></ul></div><p title="WaitingForBegin">
</p></div></div><div class="sect2" title="Authentication mechanisms"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="auth-mechanisms"></a>Authentication mechanisms</h3></div></div></div><p>
This section describes some new authentication mechanisms.
D-Bus also allows any standard SASL mechanism of course.
</p><div class="sect3" title="DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="auth-mechanisms-sha"></a>DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1</h4></div></div></div><p>
The DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 mechanism is designed to establish that a client
has the ability to read a private file owned by the user being
authenticated. If the client can prove that it has access to a secret
cookie stored in this file, then the client is authenticated.
Thus the security of DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 depends on a secure home
directory.
</p><p>
Throughout this description, "hex encoding" must output the digits
from a to f in lower-case; the digits A to F must not be used
in the DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 mechanism.
</p><p>
Authentication proceeds as follows:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
The client sends the username it would like to authenticate
as, hex-encoded.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The server sends the name of its "cookie context" (see below); a
space character; the integer ID of the secret cookie the client
must demonstrate knowledge of; a space character; then a
randomly-generated challenge string, all of this hex-encoded into
one, single string.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The client locates the cookie and generates its own
randomly-generated challenge string. The client then concatenates
the server's decoded challenge, a ":" character, its own challenge,
another ":" character, and the cookie. It computes the SHA-1 hash
of this composite string as a hex digest. It concatenates the
client's challenge string, a space character, and the SHA-1 hex
digest, hex-encodes the result and sends it back to the server.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The server generates the same concatenated string used by the
client and computes its SHA-1 hash. It compares the hash with
the hash received from the client; if the two hashes match, the
client is authenticated.
</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p><p>
Each server has a "cookie context," which is a name that identifies a
set of cookies that apply to that server. A sample context might be
"org_freedesktop_session_bus". Context names must be valid ASCII,
nonzero length, and may not contain the characters slash ("/"),
backslash ("\"), space (" "), newline ("\n"), carriage return ("\r"),
tab ("\t"), or period ("."). There is a default context,
"org_freedesktop_general" that's used by servers that do not specify
otherwise.
</p><p>
Cookies are stored in a user's home directory, in the directory
<code class="filename">~/.dbus-keyrings/</code>. This directory must
not be readable or writable by other users. If it is,
clients and servers must ignore it. The directory
contains cookie files named after the cookie context.
</p><p>
A cookie file contains one cookie per line. Each line
has three space-separated fields:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
The cookie ID number, which must be a non-negative integer and
may not be used twice in the same file.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The cookie's creation time, in UNIX seconds-since-the-epoch
format.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The cookie itself, a hex-encoded random block of bytes. The cookie
may be of any length, though obviously security increases
as the length increases.
</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p><p>
Only server processes modify the cookie file.
They must do so with this procedure:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
Create a lockfile name by appending ".lock" to the name of the
cookie file. The server should attempt to create this file
using <code class="literal">O_CREAT | O_EXCL</code>. If file creation
fails, the lock fails. Servers should retry for a reasonable
period of time, then they may choose to delete an existing lock
to keep users from having to manually delete a stale
lock. <sup>[<a name="idp5260576" href="#ftn.idp5260576" class="footnote">1</a>]</sup>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Once the lockfile has been created, the server loads the cookie
file. It should then delete any cookies that are old (the
timeout can be fairly short), or more than a reasonable
time in the future (so that cookies never accidentally
become permanent, if the clock was set far into the future
at some point). If no recent keys remain, the
server may generate a new key.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The pruned and possibly added-to cookie file
must be resaved atomically (using a temporary
file which is rename()'d).
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The lock must be dropped by deleting the lockfile.
</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p><p>
Clients need not lock the file in order to load it,
because servers are required to save the file atomically.
</p></div></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Server Addresses"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="addresses"></a>Server Addresses</h2></div></div></div><p>
Server addresses consist of a transport name followed by a colon, and
then an optional, comma-separated list of keys and values in the form key=value.
Each value is escaped.
</p><p>
For example:
</p><pre class="programlisting">unix:path=/tmp/dbus-test</pre><p>
Which is the address to a unix socket with the path /tmp/dbus-test.
</p><p>
Value escaping is similar to URI escaping but simpler.
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
The set of optionally-escaped bytes is:
<code class="literal">[0-9A-Za-z_-/.\]</code>. To escape, each
<span class="emphasis"><em>byte</em></span> (note, not character) which is not in the
set of optionally-escaped bytes must be replaced with an ASCII
percent (<code class="literal">%</code>) and the value of the byte in hex.
The hex value must always be two digits, even if the first digit is
zero. The optionally-escaped bytes may be escaped if desired.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
To unescape, append each byte in the value; if a byte is an ASCII
percent (<code class="literal">%</code>) character then append the following
hex value instead. It is an error if a <code class="literal">%</code> byte
does not have two hex digits following. It is an error if a
non-optionally-escaped byte is seen unescaped.
</p></li></ul></div><p>
The set of optionally-escaped bytes is intended to preserve address
readability and convenience.
</p><p>
A server may specify a key-value pair with the key <code class="literal">guid</code>
and the value a hex-encoded 16-byte sequence. <a class="xref" href="#uuids" title="UUIDs">the section called &#8220;UUIDs&#8221;</a>
describes the format of the <code class="literal">guid</code> field. If present,
this UUID may be used to distinguish one server address from another. A
server should use a different UUID for each address it listens on. For
example, if a message bus daemon offers both UNIX domain socket and TCP
connections, but treats clients the same regardless of how they connect,
those two connections are equivalent post-connection but should have
distinct UUIDs to distinguish the kinds of connection.
</p><p>
The intent of the address UUID feature is to allow a client to avoid
opening multiple identical connections to the same server, by allowing the
client to check whether an address corresponds to an already-existing
connection. Comparing two addresses is insufficient, because addresses
can be recycled by distinct servers, and equivalent addresses may look
different if simply compared as strings (for example, the host in a TCP
address can be given as an IP address or as a hostname).
</p><p>
Note that the address key is <code class="literal">guid</code> even though the
rest of the API and documentation says "UUID," for historical reasons.
</p><p>
[FIXME clarify if attempting to connect to each is a requirement
or just a suggestion]
When connecting to a server, multiple server addresses can be
separated by a semi-colon. The library will then try to connect
to the first address and if that fails, it'll try to connect to
the next one specified, and so forth. For example
</p><pre class="programlisting">unix:path=/tmp/dbus-test;unix:path=/tmp/dbus-test2</pre><p>
</p></div><div class="sect1" title="Transports"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="transports"></a>Transports</h2></div></div></div><p>
[FIXME we need to specify in detail each transport and its possible arguments]
Current transports include: unix domain sockets (including
abstract namespace on linux), launchd, TCP/IP, and a debug/testing transport
using in-process pipes. Future possible transports include one that
tunnels over X11 protocol.
</p><div class="sect2" title="Unix Domain Sockets"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="transports-unix-domain-sockets"></a>Unix Domain Sockets</h3></div></div></div><p>
Unix domain sockets can be either paths in the file system or on Linux
kernels, they can be abstract which are similar to paths but
do not show up in the file system.
</p><p>
When a socket is opened by the D-Bus library it truncates the path
name right before the first trailing Nul byte. This is true for both
normal paths and abstract paths. Note that this is a departure from
previous versions of D-Bus that would create sockets with a fixed
length path name. Names which were shorter than the fixed length
would be padded by Nul bytes.
</p><p>
Unix domain sockets are not available on windows.
</p><div class="sect3" title="Server Address Format"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="transports-unix-domain-sockets-addresses"></a>Server Address Format</h4></div></div></div><p>
Unix domain socket addresses are identified by the "unix:" prefix
and support the following key/value pairs:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Name</th><th>Values</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>path</td><td>(path)</td><td>path of the unix domain socket. If set, the "tmpdir" and "abstract" key must not be set.</td></tr><tr><td>tmpdir</td><td>(path)</td><td>temporary directory in which a socket file with a random file name starting with 'dbus-' will be created by the server. This key can only be used in server addresses, not in client addresses. If set, the "path" and "abstract" key must not be set.</td></tr><tr><td>abstract</td><td>(string)</td><td>unique string (path) in the abstract namespace. If set, the "path" or "tempdir" key must not be set.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div></div><div class="sect2" title="launchd"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="transports-launchd"></a>launchd</h3></div></div></div><p>
launchd is a open-source server management system that replaces init, inetd
and cron on Apple Mac OS X versions 10.4 and above. It provides a common session
bus address for each user and deprecates the X11-enabled D-Bus launcher on OSX.
</p><p>
launchd allocates a socket and provides it with the unix path through the
DBUS_LAUNCHD_SESSION_BUS_SOCKET variable in launchd's environment. Every process
spawned by launchd (or dbus-daemon, if it was started by launchd) can access
it through its environment.
Other processes can query for the launchd socket by executing:
$ launchctl getenv DBUS_LAUNCHD_SESSION_BUS_SOCKET
This is normally done by the D-Bus client library so doesn't have to be done
manually.
</p><p>
launchd is not available on Microsoft Windows.
</p><div class="sect3" title="Server Address Format"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="transports-launchd-addresses"></a>Server Address Format</h4></div></div></div><p>
launchd addresses are identified by the "launchd:" prefix
and support the following key/value pairs:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Name</th><th>Values</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>env</td><td>(environment variable)</td><td>path of the unix domain socket for the launchd created dbus-daemon.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div></div><div class="sect2" title="TCP Sockets"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="transports-tcp-sockets"></a>TCP Sockets</h3></div></div></div><p>
The tcp transport provides TCP/IP based connections between clients
located on the same or different hosts.
</p><p>
Using tcp transport without any additional secure authentification mechanismus
over a network is unsecure.
</p><p>
Windows notes: Because of the tcp stack on windows does not provide sending
credentials over a tcp connection, the EXTERNAL authentification
mechanismus does not work.
</p><div class="sect3" title="Server Address Format"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="transports-tcp-sockets-addresses"></a>Server Address Format</h4></div></div></div><p>
TCP/IP socket addresses are identified by the "tcp:" prefix
and support the following key/value pairs:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Name</th><th>Values</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>host</td><td>(string)</td><td>dns name or ip address</td></tr><tr><td>port</td><td>(number)</td><td>The tcp port the server will open. A zero value let the server
choose a free port provided from the underlaying operating system.
libdbus is able to retrieve the real used port from the server.
</td></tr><tr><td>family</td><td>(string)</td><td>If set, provide the type of socket family either "ipv4" or "ipv6". If unset, the family is unspecified.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div></div><div class="sect2" title="Nonce-secured TCP Sockets"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="transports-nonce-tcp-sockets"></a>Nonce-secured TCP Sockets</h3></div></div></div><p>
The nonce-tcp transport provides a secured TCP transport, using a
simple authentication mechanism to ensure that only clients with read
access to a certain location in the filesystem can connect to the server.
The server writes a secret, the nonce, to a file and an incoming client
connection is only accepted if the client sends the nonce right after
the connect. The nonce mechanism requires no setup and is orthogonal to
the higher-level authentication mechanisms described in the
Authentication section.
</p><p>
On start, the server generates a random 16 byte nonce and writes it
to a file in the user's temporary directory. The nonce file location
is published as part of the server's D-Bus address using the
"noncefile" key-value pair.
After an accept, the server reads 16 bytes from the socket. If the
read bytes do not match the nonce stored in the nonce file, the
server MUST immediately drop the connection.
If the nonce match the received byte sequence, the client is accepted
and the transport behaves like an unsecured tcp transport.
</p><p>
After a successful connect to the server socket, the client MUST read
the nonce from the file published by the server via the noncefile=
key-value pair and send it over the socket. After that, the
transport behaves like an unsecured tcp transport.
</p><div class="sect3" title="Server Address Format"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="transports-nonce-tcp-sockets-addresses"></a>Server Address Format</h4></div></div></div><p>
Nonce TCP/IP socket addresses uses the "nonce-tcp:" prefix
and support the following key/value pairs:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Name</th><th>Values</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>host</td><td>(string)</td><td>dns name or ip address</td></tr><tr><td>port</td><td>(number)</td><td>The tcp port the server will open. A zero value let the server
choose a free port provided from the underlaying operating system.
libdbus is able to retrieve the real used port from the server.
</td></tr><tr><td>family</td><td>(string)</td><td>If set, provide the type of socket family either "ipv4" or "ipv6". If unset, the family is unspecified.</td></tr><tr><td>noncefile</td><td>(path)</td><td>file location containing the secret</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Meta Transports"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="meta-transports"></a>Meta Transports</h2></div></div></div><p>
Meta transports are a kind of transport with special enhancements or
behavior. Currently available meta transports include: autolaunch
</p><div class="sect2" title="Autolaunch"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="meta-transports-autolaunch"></a>Autolaunch</h3></div></div></div><p>The autolaunch transport provides a way for dbus clients to autodetect
a running dbus session bus and to autolaunch a session bus if not present.
</p><div class="sect3" title="Server Address Format"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="meta-transports-autolaunch-addresses"></a>Server Address Format</h4></div></div></div><p>
Autolaunch addresses uses the "autolaunch:" prefix and support the
following key/value pairs:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Name</th><th>Values</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>scope</td><td>(string)</td><td>scope of autolaunch (Windows only)
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
"*install-path" - limit session bus to dbus installation path.
The dbus installation path is determined from the location of
the shared dbus library. If the library is located in a 'bin'
subdirectory the installation root is the directory above,
otherwise the directory where the library lives is taken as
installation root.
</p><pre class="programlisting">
&lt;install-root&gt;/bin/[lib]dbus-1.dll
&lt;install-root&gt;/[lib]dbus-1.dll
</pre><p>
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
"*user" - limit session bus to the recent user.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
other values - specify dedicated session bus like "release",
"debug" or other
</p></li></ul></div>
</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="sect3" title="Windows implementation"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="meta-transports-autolaunch-windows-implementation"></a>Windows implementation</h4></div></div></div><p>
On start, the server opens a platform specific transport, creates a mutex
and a shared memory section containing the related session bus address.
This mutex will be inspected by the dbus client library to detect a
running dbus session bus. The access to the mutex and the shared memory
section are protected by global locks.
</p><p>
In the recent implementation the autolaunch transport uses a tcp transport
on localhost with a port choosen from the operating system. This detail may
change in the future.
</p><p>
Disclaimer: The recent implementation is in an early state and may not
work in all cirumstances and/or may have security issues. Because of this
the implementation is not documentated yet.
</p></div></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Naming Conventions"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="naming-conventions"></a>Naming Conventions</h2></div></div></div><p>
D-Bus namespaces are all lowercase and correspond to reversed domain
names, as with Java. e.g. "org.freedesktop"
</p><p>
Interface, signal, method, and property names are "WindowsStyleCaps", note
that the first letter is capitalized, unlike Java.
</p><p>
Object paths are normally all lowercase with underscores used rather than
hyphens.
</p></div><div class="sect1" title="UUIDs"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="uuids"></a>UUIDs</h2></div></div></div><p>
A working D-Bus implementation uses universally-unique IDs in two places.
First, each server address has a UUID identifying the address,
as described in <a class="xref" href="#addresses" title="Server Addresses">the section called &#8220;Server Addresses&#8221;</a>. Second, each operating
system kernel instance running a D-Bus client or server has a UUID
identifying that kernel, retrieved by invoking the method
org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.GetMachineId() (see <a class="xref" href="#standard-interfaces-peer" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer">the section called &#8220;<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer</code>&#8221;</a>).
</p><p>
The term "UUID" in this document is intended literally, i.e. an
identifier that is universally unique. It is not intended to refer to
RFC4122, and in fact the D-Bus UUID is not compatible with that RFC.
</p><p>
The UUID must contain 128 bits of data and be hex-encoded. The
hex-encoded string may not contain hyphens or other non-hex-digit
characters, and it must be exactly 32 characters long. To generate a
UUID, the current reference implementation concatenates 96 bits of random
data followed by the 32-bit time in seconds since the UNIX epoch (in big
endian byte order).
</p><p>
It would also be acceptable and probably better to simply generate 128
bits of random data, as long as the random number generator is of high
quality. The timestamp could conceivably help if the random bits are not
very random. With a quality random number generator, collisions are
extremely unlikely even with only 96 bits, so it's somewhat academic.
</p><p>
Implementations should, however, stick to random data for the first 96 bits
of the UUID.
</p></div><div class="sect1" title="Standard Interfaces"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="standard-interfaces"></a>Standard Interfaces</h2></div></div></div><p>
See <a class="xref" href="#message-protocol-types-notation" title="Notation in this document">the section called &#8220;Notation in this document&#8221;</a> for details on
the notation used in this section. There are some standard interfaces
that may be useful across various D-Bus applications.
</p><div class="sect2" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="standard-interfaces-peer"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer</code></h3></div></div></div><p>
The <code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer</code> interface
has two methods:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.Ping ()
org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.GetMachineId (out STRING machine_uuid)
</pre><p>
</p><p>
On receipt of the <code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code> message
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.Ping</code>, an application should do
nothing other than reply with a <code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code> as
usual. It does not matter which object path a ping is sent to. The
reference implementation handles this method automatically.
</p><p>
On receipt of the <code class="literal">METHOD_CALL</code> message
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.GetMachineId</code>, an application should
reply with a <code class="literal">METHOD_RETURN</code> containing a hex-encoded
UUID representing the identity of the machine the process is running on.
This UUID must be the same for all processes on a single system at least
until that system next reboots. It should be the same across reboots
if possible, but this is not always possible to implement and is not
guaranteed.
It does not matter which object path a GetMachineId is sent to. The
reference implementation handles this method automatically.
</p><p>
The UUID is intended to be per-instance-of-the-operating-system, so may represent
a virtual machine running on a hypervisor, rather than a physical machine.
Basically if two processes see the same UUID, they should also see the same
shared memory, UNIX domain sockets, process IDs, and other features that require
a running OS kernel in common between the processes.
</p><p>
The UUID is often used where other programs might use a hostname. Hostnames
can change without rebooting, however, or just be "localhost" - so the UUID
is more robust.
</p><p>
<a class="xref" href="#uuids" title="UUIDs">the section called &#8220;UUIDs&#8221;</a> explains the format of the UUID.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="standard-interfaces-introspectable"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable</code></h3></div></div></div><p>
This interface has one method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable.Introspect (out STRING xml_data)
</pre><p>
</p><p>
Objects instances may implement
<code class="literal">Introspect</code> which returns an XML description of
the object, including its interfaces (with signals and methods), objects
below it in the object path tree, and its properties.
</p><p>
<a class="xref" href="#introspection-format" title="Introspection Data Format">the section called &#8220;Introspection Data Format&#8221;</a> describes the format of this XML string.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="standard-interfaces-properties"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties</code></h3></div></div></div><p>
Many native APIs will have a concept of object <em class="firstterm">properties</em>
or <em class="firstterm">attributes</em>. These can be exposed via the
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties</code> interface.
</p><p>
</p><pre class="programlisting">
org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.Get (in STRING interface_name,
in STRING property_name,
out VARIANT value);
org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.Set (in STRING interface_name,
in STRING property_name,
in VARIANT value);
org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.GetAll (in STRING interface_name,
out DICT&lt;STRING,VARIANT&gt; props);
</pre><p>
</p><p>
The available properties and whether they are writable can be determined
by calling <code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable.Introspect</code>,
see <a class="xref" href="#standard-interfaces-introspectable" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable">the section called &#8220;<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable</code>&#8221;</a>.
</p><p>
An empty string may be provided for the interface name; in this case,
if there are multiple properties on an object with the same name,
the results are undefined (picking one by according to an arbitrary
deterministic rule, or returning an error, are the reasonable
possibilities).
</p><p>
If one or more properties change on an object, the
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.PropertiesChanged</code>
signal may be emitted (this signal was added in 0.14):
</p><p>
</p><pre class="programlisting">
org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.PropertiesChanged (STRING interface_name,
DICT&lt;STRING,VARIANT&gt; changed_properties,
ARRAY&lt;STRING&gt; invalidated_properties);
</pre><p>
</p><p>
where <code class="literal">changed_properties</code> is a dictionary
containing the changed properties with the new values and
<code class="literal">invalidated_properties</code> is an array of
properties that changed but the value is not conveyed.
</p><p>
Whether the <code class="literal">PropertiesChanged</code> signal is
supported can be determined by calling
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable.Introspect</code>. Note
that the signal may be supported for an object but it may
differ how whether and how it is used on a per-property basis
(for e.g. performance or security reasons). Each property (or
the parent interface) must be annotated with the
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Property.EmitsChangedSignal</code>
annotation to convey this (usually the default value
<code class="literal">true</code> is sufficient meaning that the
annotation does not need to be used). See <a class="xref" href="#introspection-format" title="Introspection Data Format">the section called &#8220;Introspection Data Format&#8221;</a> for details on this
annotation.
</p></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Introspection Data Format"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="introspection-format"></a>Introspection Data Format</h2></div></div></div><p>
As described in <a class="xref" href="#standard-interfaces-introspectable" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable">the section called &#8220;<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable</code>&#8221;</a>,
objects may be introspected at runtime, returning an XML string
that describes the object. The same XML format may be used in
other contexts as well, for example as an "IDL" for generating
static language bindings.
</p><p>
Here is an example of introspection data:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
&lt;!DOCTYPE node PUBLIC "-//freedesktop//DTD D-BUS Object Introspection 1.0//EN"
"http://www.freedesktop.org/standards/dbus/1.0/introspect.dtd"&gt;
&lt;node name="/org/freedesktop/sample_object"&gt;
&lt;interface name="org.freedesktop.SampleInterface"&gt;
&lt;method name="Frobate"&gt;
&lt;arg name="foo" type="i" direction="in"/&gt;
&lt;arg name="bar" type="s" direction="out"/&gt;
&lt;arg name="baz" type="a{us}" direction="out"/&gt;
&lt;annotation name="org.freedesktop.DBus.Deprecated" value="true"/&gt;
&lt;/method&gt;
&lt;method name="Bazify"&gt;
&lt;arg name="bar" type="(iiu)" direction="in"/&gt;
&lt;arg name="bar" type="v" direction="out"/&gt;
&lt;/method&gt;
&lt;method name="Mogrify"&gt;
&lt;arg name="bar" type="(iiav)" direction="in"/&gt;
&lt;/method&gt;
&lt;signal name="Changed"&gt;
&lt;arg name="new_value" type="b"/&gt;
&lt;/signal&gt;
&lt;property name="Bar" type="y" access="readwrite"/&gt;
&lt;/interface&gt;
&lt;node name="child_of_sample_object"/&gt;
&lt;node name="another_child_of_sample_object"/&gt;
&lt;/node&gt;
</pre><p>
</p><p>
A more formal DTD and spec needs writing, but here are some quick notes.
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
Only the root &lt;node&gt; element can omit the node name, as it's
known to be the object that was introspected. If the root
&lt;node&gt; does have a name attribute, it must be an absolute
object path. If child &lt;node&gt; have object paths, they must be
relative.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
If a child &lt;node&gt; has any sub-elements, then they
must represent a complete introspection of the child.
If a child &lt;node&gt; is empty, then it may or may
not have sub-elements; the child must be introspected
in order to find out. The intent is that if an object
knows that its children are "fast" to introspect
it can go ahead and return their information, but
otherwise it can omit it.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The direction element on &lt;arg&gt; may be omitted,
in which case it defaults to "in" for method calls
and "out" for signals. Signals only allow "out"
so while direction may be specified, it's pointless.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The possible directions are "in" and "out",
unlike CORBA there is no "inout"
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The possible property access flags are
"readwrite", "read", and "write"
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
Multiple interfaces can of course be listed for
one &lt;node&gt;.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
The "name" attribute on arguments is optional.
</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p><p>
Method, interface, property, and signal elements may have
"annotations", which are generic key/value pairs of metadata.
They are similar conceptually to Java's annotations and C# attributes.
Well-known annotations:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Name</th><th>Values (separated by ,)</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>org.freedesktop.DBus.Deprecated</td><td>true,false</td><td>Whether or not the entity is deprecated; defaults to false</td></tr><tr><td>org.freedesktop.DBus.GLib.CSymbol</td><td>(string)</td><td>The C symbol; may be used for methods and interfaces</td></tr><tr><td>org.freedesktop.DBus.Method.NoReply</td><td>true,false</td><td>If set, don't expect a reply to the method call; defaults to false.</td></tr><tr><td>org.freedesktop.DBus.Property.EmitsChangedSignal</td><td>true,invalidates,false</td><td>
<p>
If set to <code class="literal">false</code>, the
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.PropertiesChanged</code>
signal, see <a class="xref" href="#standard-interfaces-properties" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties">the section called &#8220;<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties</code>&#8221;</a> is not
guaranteed to be emitted if the property changes.
</p>
<p>
If set to <code class="literal">invalidates</code> the signal
is emitted but the value is not included in the
signal.
</p>
<p>
If set to <code class="literal">true</code> the signal is
emitted with the value included.
</p>
<p>
The value for the annotation defaults to
<code class="literal">true</code> if the enclosing interface
element does not specify the annotation. Otherwise it
defaults to the value specified in the enclosing
interface element.
</p>
</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Message Bus Specification"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="message-bus"></a>Message Bus Specification</h2></div></div></div><div class="sect2" title="Message Bus Overview"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-bus-overview"></a>Message Bus Overview</h3></div></div></div><p>
The message bus accepts connections from one or more applications.
Once connected, applications can exchange messages with other
applications that are also connected to the bus.
</p><p>
In order to route messages among connections, the message bus keeps a
mapping from names to connections. Each connection has one
unique-for-the-lifetime-of-the-bus name automatically assigned.
Applications may request additional names for a connection. Additional
names are usually "well-known names" such as
"org.freedesktop.TextEditor". When a name is bound to a connection,
that connection is said to <em class="firstterm">own</em> the name.
</p><p>
The bus itself owns a special name, <code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus</code>.
This name routes messages to the bus, allowing applications to make
administrative requests. For example, applications can ask the bus
to assign a name to a connection.
</p><p>
Each name may have <em class="firstterm">queued owners</em>. When an
application requests a name for a connection and the name is already in
use, the bus will optionally add the connection to a queue waiting for
the name. If the current owner of the name disconnects or releases
the name, the next connection in the queue will become the new owner.
</p><p>
This feature causes the right thing to happen if you start two text
editors for example; the first one may request "org.freedesktop.TextEditor",
and the second will be queued as a possible owner of that name. When
the first exits, the second will take over.
</p><p>
Messages may have a <code class="literal">DESTINATION</code> field (see <a class="xref" href="#message-protocol-header-fields" title="Header Fields">the section called &#8220;Header Fields&#8221;</a>). If the
<code class="literal">DESTINATION</code> field is present, it specifies a message
recipient by name. Method calls and replies normally specify this field.
The message bus must send messages (of any type) with the
<code class="literal">DESTINATION</code> field set to the specified recipient,
regardless of whether the recipient has set up a match rule matching
the message.
</p><p>
Signals normally do not specify a destination; they are sent to all
applications with <em class="firstterm">message matching rules</em> that
match the message.
</p><p>
When the message bus receives a method call, if the
<code class="literal">DESTINATION</code> field is absent, the call is taken to be
a standard one-to-one message and interpreted by the message bus
itself. For example, sending an
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.Ping</code> message with no
<code class="literal">DESTINATION</code> will cause the message bus itself to
reply to the ping immediately; the message bus will not make this
message visible to other applications.
</p><p>
Continuing the <code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.Ping</code> example, if
the ping message were sent with a <code class="literal">DESTINATION</code> name of
<code class="literal">com.yoyodyne.Screensaver</code>, then the ping would be
forwarded, and the Yoyodyne Corporation screensaver application would be
expected to reply to the ping.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Message Bus Names"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-bus-names"></a>Message Bus Names</h3></div></div></div><p>
Each connection has at least one name, assigned at connection time and
returned in response to the
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Hello</code> method call. This
automatically-assigned name is called the connection's <em class="firstterm">unique
name</em>. Unique names are never reused for two different
connections to the same bus.
</p><p>
Ownership of a unique name is a prerequisite for interaction with
the message bus. It logically follows that the unique name is always
the first name that an application comes to own, and the last
one that it loses ownership of.
</p><p>
Unique connection names must begin with the character ':' (ASCII colon
character); bus names that are not unique names must not begin
with this character. (The bus must reject any attempt by an application
to manually request a name beginning with ':'.) This restriction
categorically prevents "spoofing"; messages sent to a unique name
will always go to the expected connection.
</p><p>
When a connection is closed, all the names that it owns are deleted (or
transferred to the next connection in the queue if any).
</p><p>
A connection can request additional names to be associated with it using
the <code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.RequestName</code> message. <a class="xref" href="#message-protocol-names-bus" title="Bus names">the section called &#8220;Bus names&#8221;</a> describes the format of a valid
name. These names can be released again using the
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.ReleaseName</code> message.
</p><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.RequestName"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-request-name"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.RequestName</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
UINT32 RequestName (in STRING name, in UINT32 flags)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Name to request</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>UINT32</td><td>Flags</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Reply arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>UINT32</td><td>Return value</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
This method call should be sent to
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus</code> and asks the message bus to
assign the given name to the method caller. Each name maintains a
queue of possible owners, where the head of the queue is the primary
or current owner of the name. Each potential owner in the queue
maintains the DBUS_NAME_FLAG_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT and
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_DO_NOT_QUEUE settings from its latest RequestName
call. When RequestName is invoked the following occurs:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
If the method caller is currently the primary owner of the name,
the DBUS_NAME_FLAG_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT and DBUS_NAME_FLAG_DO_NOT_QUEUE
values are updated with the values from the new RequestName call,
and nothing further happens.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
If the current primary owner (head of the queue) has
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT set, and the RequestName
invocation has the DBUS_NAME_FLAG_REPLACE_EXISTING flag, then
the caller of RequestName replaces the current primary owner at
the head of the queue and the current primary owner moves to the
second position in the queue. If the caller of RequestName was
in the queue previously its flags are updated with the values from
the new RequestName in addition to moving it to the head of the queue.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
If replacement is not possible, and the method caller is
currently in the queue but not the primary owner, its flags are
updated with the values from the new RequestName call.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
If replacement is not possible, and the method caller is
currently not in the queue, the method caller is appended to the
queue.
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
If any connection in the queue has DBUS_NAME_FLAG_DO_NOT_QUEUE
set and is not the primary owner, it is removed from the
queue. This can apply to the previous primary owner (if it
was replaced) or the method caller (if it updated the
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_DO_NOT_QUEUE flag while still stuck in the
queue, or if it was just added to the queue with that flag set).
</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p><p>
Note that DBUS_NAME_FLAG_REPLACE_EXISTING results in "jumping the
queue," even if another application already in the queue had specified
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_REPLACE_EXISTING. This comes up if a primary owner
that does not allow replacement goes away, and the next primary owner
does allow replacement. In this case, queued items that specified
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_REPLACE_EXISTING <span class="emphasis"><em>do not</em></span>
automatically replace the new primary owner. In other words,
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_REPLACE_EXISTING is not saved, it is only used at the
time RequestName is called. This is deliberate to avoid an infinite loop
anytime two applications are both DBUS_NAME_FLAG_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT
and DBUS_NAME_FLAG_REPLACE_EXISTING.
</p><p>
The flags argument contains any of the following values logically ORed
together:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Conventional Name</th><th>Value</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>DBUS_NAME_FLAG_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT</td><td>0x1</td><td>
If an application A specifies this flag and succeeds in
becoming the owner of the name, and another application B
later calls RequestName with the
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_REPLACE_EXISTING flag, then application A
will lose ownership and receive a
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.NameLost</code> signal, and
application B will become the new owner. If DBUS_NAME_FLAG_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT
is not specified by application A, or DBUS_NAME_FLAG_REPLACE_EXISTING
is not specified by application B, then application B will not replace
application A as the owner.
</td></tr><tr><td>DBUS_NAME_FLAG_REPLACE_EXISTING</td><td>0x2</td><td>
Try to replace the current owner if there is one. If this
flag is not set the application will only become the owner of
the name if there is no current owner. If this flag is set,
the application will replace the current owner if
the current owner specified DBUS_NAME_FLAG_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT.
</td></tr><tr><td>DBUS_NAME_FLAG_DO_NOT_QUEUE</td><td>0x4</td><td>
Without this flag, if an application requests a name that is
already owned, the application will be placed in a queue to
own the name when the current owner gives it up. If this
flag is given, the application will not be placed in the
queue, the request for the name will simply fail. This flag
also affects behavior when an application is replaced as
name owner; by default the application moves back into the
waiting queue, unless this flag was provided when the application
became the name owner.
</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
The return code can be one of the following values:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Conventional Name</th><th>Value</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>DBUS_REQUEST_NAME_REPLY_PRIMARY_OWNER</td><td>1</td><td>The caller is now the primary owner of
the name, replacing any previous owner. Either the name had no
owner before, or the caller specified
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_REPLACE_EXISTING and the current owner specified
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT.</td></tr><tr><td>DBUS_REQUEST_NAME_REPLY_IN_QUEUE</td><td>2</td><td>The name already had an owner,
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_DO_NOT_QUEUE was not specified, and either
the current owner did not specify
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT or the requesting
application did not specify DBUS_NAME_FLAG_REPLACE_EXISTING.
</td></tr><tr><td>DBUS_REQUEST_NAME_REPLY_EXISTS</td><td>3</td><td>The name already has an owner,
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_DO_NOT_QUEUE was specified, and either
DBUS_NAME_FLAG_ALLOW_REPLACEMENT was not specified by the
current owner, or DBUS_NAME_FLAG_REPLACE_EXISTING was not
specified by the requesting application.</td></tr><tr><td>DBUS_REQUEST_NAME_REPLY_ALREADY_OWNER</td><td>4</td><td>The application trying to request ownership of a name is already the owner of it.</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.ReleaseName"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-release-name"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.ReleaseName</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
UINT32 ReleaseName (in STRING name)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Name to release</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Reply arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>UINT32</td><td>Return value</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
This method call should be sent to
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus</code> and asks the message bus to
release the method caller's claim to the given name. If the caller is
the primary owner, a new primary owner will be selected from the
queue if any other owners are waiting. If the caller is waiting in
the queue for the name, the caller will removed from the queue and
will not be made an owner of the name if it later becomes available.
If there are no other owners in the queue for the name, it will be
removed from the bus entirely.
The return code can be one of the following values:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Conventional Name</th><th>Value</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>DBUS_RELEASE_NAME_REPLY_RELEASED</td><td>1</td><td>The caller has released his claim on
the given name. Either the caller was the primary owner of
the name, and the name is now unused or taken by somebody
waiting in the queue for the name, or the caller was waiting
in the queue for the name and has now been removed from the
queue.</td></tr><tr><td>DBUS_RELEASE_NAME_REPLY_NON_EXISTENT</td><td>2</td><td>The given name does not exist on this bus.</td></tr><tr><td>DBUS_RELEASE_NAME_REPLY_NOT_OWNER</td><td>3</td><td>The caller was not the primary owner of this name,
and was also not waiting in the queue to own this name.</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.ListQueuedOwners"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-list-queued-owners"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.ListQueuedOwners</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
ARRAY of STRING ListQueuedOwners (in STRING name)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>The well-known bus name to query, such as
<code class="literal">com.example.cappuccino</code></td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Reply arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>ARRAY of STRING</td><td>The unique bus names of connections currently queued
for the name</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
This method call should be sent to
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus</code> and lists the connections
currently queued for a bus name (see
<a class="xref" href="#term-queued-owner" title="Queued Name Owner">Queued Name Owner</a>).
</p></div></div><div class="sect2" title="Message Bus Message Routing"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-bus-routing"></a>Message Bus Message Routing</h3></div></div></div><p>
FIXME
</p><div class="sect3" title="Match Rules"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-bus-routing-match-rules"></a>Match Rules</h4></div></div></div><p>
An important part of the message bus routing protocol is match
rules. Match rules describe what messages can be sent to a client
based on the contents of the message. When a message is routed
through the bus it is compared to clients' match rules. If any
of the rules match, the message is dispatched to the client.
If none of the rules match the message never leaves the bus. This
is an effective way to control traffic over the bus and to make sure
only relevant message need to be processed by the client.
</p><p>
Match rules are added using the AddMatch bus method
(see <a class="xref" href="#bus-messages-add-match" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.AddMatch">the section called &#8220;<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.AddMatch</code>&#8221;</a>). Rules are
specified as a string of comma separated key/value pairs.
Excluding a key from the rule indicates a wildcard match.
For instance excluding the the member from a match rule but
adding a sender would let all messages from that sender through.
An example of a complete rule would be
"type='signal',sender='org.freedesktop.DBus',interface='org.freedesktop.DBus',member='Foo',path='/bar/foo',destination=':452345.34',arg2='bar'"
</p><p>
The following table describes the keys that can be used to create
a match rule:
The following table summarizes the D-Bus types.
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Key</th><th>Possible Values</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><code class="literal">type</code></td><td>'signal', 'method_call', 'method_return', 'error'</td><td>Match on the message type. An example of a type match is type='signal'</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">sender</code></td><td>A bus or unique name (see <a class="xref" href="#term-bus-name" title="Bus Name">Bus Name</a>
and <a class="xref" href="#term-unique-name" title="Unique Connection Name">Unique Connection Name</a> respectively)
</td><td>Match messages sent by a particular sender. An example of a sender match
is sender='org.freedesktop.Hal'</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">interface</code></td><td>An interface name (see <a class="xref" href="#message-protocol-names-interface" title="Interface names">the section called &#8220;Interface names&#8221;</a>)</td><td>Match messages sent over or to a particular interface. An example of an
interface match is interface='org.freedesktop.Hal.Manager'.
If a message omits the interface header, it must not match any rule
that specifies this key.</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">member</code></td><td>Any valid method or signal name</td><td>Matches messages which have the give method or signal name. An example of
a member match is member='NameOwnerChanged'</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">path</code></td><td>An object path (see <a class="xref" href="#message-protocol-marshaling-object-path" title="Valid Object Paths">the section called &#8220;Valid Object Paths&#8221;</a>)</td><td>Matches messages which are sent from or to the given object. An example of a
path match is path='/org/freedesktop/Hal/Manager'</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">destination</code></td><td>A unique name (see <a class="xref" href="#term-unique-name" title="Unique Connection Name">Unique Connection Name</a>)</td><td>Matches messages which are being sent to the given unique name. An
example of a destination match is destination=':1.0'</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">arg[0, 1, 2, 3, ...]</code></td><td>Any string</td><td>Arg matches are special and are used for further restricting the
match based on the arguments in the body of a message. As of this time
only string arguments can be matched. An example of an argument match
would be arg3='Foo'. Only argument indexes from 0 to 63 should be
accepted.</td></tr><tr><td><code class="literal">arg[0, 1, 2, 3, ...]path</code></td><td>Any string</td><td>Argument path matches provide a specialised form of wildcard
matching for path-like namespaces. As with normal argument matches,
if the argument is exactly equal to the string given in the match
rule then the rule is satisfied. Additionally, there is also a
match when either the string given in the match rule or the
appropriate message argument ends with '/' and is a prefix of the
other. An example argument path match is arg0path='/aa/bb/'. This
would match messages with first arguments of '/', '/aa/',
'/aa/bb/', '/aa/bb/cc/' and '/aa/bb/cc'. It would not match
messages with first arguments of '/aa/b', '/aa' or even '/aa/bb'.</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p></div></div><div class="sect2" title="Message Bus Starting Services"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-bus-starting-services"></a>Message Bus Starting Services</h3></div></div></div><p>
The message bus can start applications on behalf of other applications.
In CORBA terms, this would be called <em class="firstterm">activation</em>.
An application that can be started in this way is called a
<em class="firstterm">service</em>.
</p><p>
With D-Bus, starting a service is normally done by name. That is,
applications ask the message bus to start some program that will own a
well-known name, such as <code class="literal">org.freedesktop.TextEditor</code>.
This implies a contract documented along with the name
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.TextEditor</code> for which objects
the owner of that name will provide, and what interfaces those
objects will have.
</p><p>
To find an executable corresponding to a particular name, the bus daemon
looks for <em class="firstterm">service description files</em>. Service
description files define a mapping from names to executables. Different
kinds of message bus will look for these files in different places, see
<a class="xref" href="#message-bus-types" title="Well-known Message Bus Instances">the section called &#8220;Well-known Message Bus Instances&#8221;</a>.
</p><p>
Service description files have the ".service" file
extension. The message bus will only load service description files
ending with .service; all other files will be ignored. The file format
is similar to that of <a class="ulink" href="http://standards.freedesktop.org/desktop-entry-spec/desktop-entry-spec-latest.html" target="_top">desktop
entries</a>. All service description files must be in UTF-8
encoding. To ensure that there will be no name collisions, service files
must be namespaced using the same mechanism as messages and service
names.
</p><p>
[FIXME the file format should be much better specified than "similar to
.desktop entries" esp. since desktop entries are already
badly-specified. ;-)]
These sections from the specification apply to service files as well:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>General syntax</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Comment format</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p><div class="figure"><a name="idp5565600"></a><p class="title"><b>Figure 9. Example service description file</b></p><div class="figure-contents"><pre class="programlisting">
# Sample service description file
[D-BUS Service]
Names=org.freedesktop.ConfigurationDatabase;org.gnome.GConf;
Exec=/usr/libexec/gconfd-2
</pre></div></div><p><br class="figure-break">
</p><p>
When an application asks to start a service by name, the bus daemon tries to
find a service that will own that name. It then tries to spawn the
executable associated with it. If this fails, it will report an
error. [FIXME what happens if two .service files offer the same service;
what kind of error is reported, should we have a way for the client to
choose one?]
</p><p>
The executable launched will have the environment variable
<code class="literal">DBUS_STARTER_ADDRESS</code> set to the address of the
message bus so it can connect and request the appropriate names.
</p><p>
The executable being launched may want to know whether the message bus
starting it is one of the well-known message buses (see <a class="xref" href="#message-bus-types" title="Well-known Message Bus Instances">the section called &#8220;Well-known Message Bus Instances&#8221;</a>). To facilitate this, the bus must also set
the <code class="literal">DBUS_STARTER_BUS_TYPE</code> environment variable if it is one
of the well-known buses. The currently-defined values for this variable
are <code class="literal">system</code> for the systemwide message bus,
and <code class="literal">session</code> for the per-login-session message
bus. The new executable must still connect to the address given
in <code class="literal">DBUS_STARTER_ADDRESS</code>, but may assume that the
resulting connection is to the well-known bus.
</p><p>
[FIXME there should be a timeout somewhere, either specified
in the .service file, by the client, or just a global value
and if the client being activated fails to connect within that
timeout, an error should be sent back.]
</p><div class="sect3" title="Message Bus Service Scope"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-bus-starting-services-scope"></a>Message Bus Service Scope</h4></div></div></div><p>
The "scope" of a service is its "per-", such as per-session,
per-machine, per-home-directory, or per-display. The reference
implementation doesn't yet support starting services in a different
scope from the message bus itself. So e.g. if you start a service
on the session bus its scope is per-session.
</p><p>
We could add an optional scope to a bus name. For example, for
per-(display,session pair), we could have a unique ID for each display
generated automatically at login and set on screen 0 by executing a
special "set display ID" binary. The ID would be stored in a
<code class="literal">_DBUS_DISPLAY_ID</code> property and would be a string of
random bytes. This ID would then be used to scope names.
Starting/locating a service could be done by ID-name pair rather than
only by name.
</p><p>
Contrast this with a per-display scope. To achieve that, we would
want a single bus spanning all sessions using a given display.
So we might set a <code class="literal">_DBUS_DISPLAY_BUS_ADDRESS</code>
property on screen 0 of the display, pointing to this bus.
</p></div></div><div class="sect2" title="Well-known Message Bus Instances"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-bus-types"></a>Well-known Message Bus Instances</h3></div></div></div><p>
Two standard message bus instances are defined here, along with how
to locate them and where their service files live.
</p><div class="sect3" title="Login session message bus"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-bus-types-login"></a>Login session message bus</h4></div></div></div><p>
Each time a user logs in, a <em class="firstterm">login session message
bus</em> may be started. All applications in the user's login
session may interact with one another using this message bus.
</p><p>
The address of the login session message bus is given
in the <code class="literal">DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS</code> environment
variable. If that variable is not set, applications may
also try to read the address from the X Window System root
window property <code class="literal">_DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS</code>.
The root window property must have type <code class="literal">STRING</code>.
The environment variable should have precedence over the
root window property.
</p><p>The address of the login session message bus is given in the
<code class="literal">DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS</code> environment variable. If
DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS is not set, or if it's set to the string
"autolaunch:", the system should use platform-specific methods of
locating a running D-Bus session server, or starting one if a running
instance cannot be found. Note that this mechanism is not recommended
for attempting to determine if a daemon is running. It is inherently
racy to attempt to make this determination, since the bus daemon may
be started just before or just after the determination is made.
Therefore, it is recommended that applications do not try to make this
determination for their functionality purposes, and instead they
should attempt to start the server.</p><div class="sect4" title="X Windowing System"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h5 class="title"><a name="message-bus-types-login-x-windows"></a>X Windowing System</h5></div></div></div><p>
For the X Windowing System, the application must locate the
window owner of the selection represented by the atom formed by
concatenating:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>the literal string "_DBUS_SESSION_BUS_SELECTION_"</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>the current user's username</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>the literal character '_' (underscore)</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>the machine's ID</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p><p>
The following properties are defined for the window that owns
this X selection:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col></colgroup><tbody><tr><td>
<p>Atom</p>
</td><td>
<p>meaning</p>
</td></tr><tr><td>
<p>_DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS</p>
</td><td>
<p>the actual address of the server socket</p>
</td></tr><tr><td>
<p>_DBUS_SESSION_BUS_PID</p>
</td><td>
<p>the PID of the server process</p>
</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
At least the _DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS property MUST be
present in this window.
</p><p>
If the X selection cannot be located or if reading the
properties from the window fails, the implementation MUST conclude
that there is no D-Bus server running and proceed to start a new
server. (See below on concurrency issues)
</p><p>
Failure to connect to the D-Bus server address thus obtained
MUST be treated as a fatal connection error and should be reported
to the application.
</p><p>
As an alternative, an implementation MAY find the information
in the following file located in the current user's home directory,
in subdirectory .dbus/session-bus/:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>the machine's ID</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>the literal character '-' (dash)</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>the X display without the screen number, with the
following prefixes removed, if present: ":", "localhost:"
."localhost.localdomain:". That is, a display of
"localhost:10.0" produces just the number "10"</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p><p>
The contents of this file NAME=value assignment pairs and
lines starting with # are comments (no comments are allowed
otherwise). The following variable names are defined:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col></colgroup><tbody><tr><td>
<p>Variable</p>
</td><td>
<p>meaning</p>
</td></tr><tr><td>
<p>DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS</p>
</td><td>
<p>the actual address of the server socket</p>
</td></tr><tr><td>
<p>DBUS_SESSION_BUS_PID</p>
</td><td>
<p>the PID of the server process</p>
</td></tr><tr><td>
<p>DBUS_SESSION_BUS_WINDOWID</p>
</td><td>
<p>the window ID</p>
</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
At least the DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS variable MUST be present
in this file.
</p><p>
Failure to open this file MUST be interpreted as absence of a
running server. Therefore, the implementation MUST proceed to
attempting to launch a new bus server if the file cannot be
opened.
</p><p>
However, success in opening this file MUST NOT lead to the
conclusion that the server is running. Thus, a failure to connect to
the bus address obtained by the alternative method MUST NOT be
considered a fatal error. If the connection cannot be established,
the implementation MUST proceed to check the X selection settings or
to start the server on its own.
</p><p>
If the implementation concludes that the D-Bus server is not
running it MUST attempt to start a new server and it MUST also
ensure that the daemon started as an effect of the "autolaunch"
mechanism provides the lookup mechanisms described above, so
subsequent calls can locate the newly started server. The
implementation MUST also ensure that if two or more concurrent
initiations happen, only one server remains running and all other
initiations are able to obtain the address of this server and
connect to it. In other words, the implementation MUST ensure that
the X selection is not present when it attempts to set it, without
allowing another process to set the selection between the
verification and the setting (e.g., by using XGrabServer /
XungrabServer).
</p></div><div class="sect4"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h5 class="title"><a name="idp5618368"></a></h5></div></div></div><p>
[FIXME specify location of .service files, probably using
DESKTOP_DIRS etc. from basedir specification, though login session
bus is not really desktop-specific]
</p></div></div><div class="sect3" title="System message bus"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="message-bus-types-system"></a>System message bus</h4></div></div></div><p>
A computer may have a <em class="firstterm">system message bus</em>,
accessible to all applications on the system. This message bus may be
used to broadcast system events, such as adding new hardware devices,
changes in the printer queue, and so forth.
</p><p>
The address of the system message bus is given
in the <code class="literal">DBUS_SYSTEM_BUS_ADDRESS</code> environment
variable. If that variable is not set, applications should try
to connect to the well-known address
<code class="literal">unix:path=/var/run/dbus/system_bus_socket</code>.
<sup>[<a name="idp5623392" href="#ftn.idp5623392" class="footnote">2</a>]</sup>
</p><p>
[FIXME specify location of system bus .service files]
</p></div></div><div class="sect2" title="Message Bus Messages"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-bus-messages"></a>Message Bus Messages</h3></div></div></div><p>
The special message bus name <code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus</code>
responds to a number of additional messages.
</p><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.Hello"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-hello"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Hello</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
STRING Hello ()
</pre><p>
Reply arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Unique name assigned to the connection</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
Before an application is able to send messages to other applications
it must send the <code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Hello</code> message
to the message bus to obtain a unique name. If an application without
a unique name tries to send a message to another application, or a
message to the message bus itself that isn't the
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Hello</code> message, it will be
disconnected from the bus.
</p><p>
There is no corresponding "disconnect" request; if a client wishes to
disconnect from the bus, it simply closes the socket (or other
communication channel).
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.ListNames"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-list-names"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.ListNames</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
ARRAY of STRING ListNames ()
</pre><p>
Reply arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>ARRAY of STRING</td><td>Array of strings where each string is a bus name</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
Returns a list of all currently-owned names on the bus.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.ListActivatableNames"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-list-activatable-names"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.ListActivatableNames</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
ARRAY of STRING ListActivatableNames ()
</pre><p>
Reply arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>ARRAY of STRING</td><td>Array of strings where each string is a bus name</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
Returns a list of all names that can be activated on the bus.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.NameHasOwner"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-name-exists"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.NameHasOwner</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
BOOLEAN NameHasOwner (in STRING name)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Name to check</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Reply arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>BOOLEAN</td><td>Return value, true if the name exists</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
Checks if the specified name exists (currently has an owner).
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.NameOwnerChanged"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-name-owner-changed"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.NameOwnerChanged</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
This is a signal:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
NameOwnerChanged (STRING name, STRING old_owner, STRING new_owner)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Name with a new owner</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>STRING</td><td>Old owner or empty string if none</td></tr><tr><td>2</td><td>STRING</td><td>New owner or empty string if none</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
This signal indicates that the owner of a name has changed.
It's also the signal to use to detect the appearance of
new names on the bus.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.NameLost"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-name-lost"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.NameLost</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
This is a signal:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
NameLost (STRING name)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Name which was lost</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
This signal is sent to a specific application when it loses
ownership of a name.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.NameAcquired"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-name-acquired"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.NameAcquired</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
This is a signal:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
NameAcquired (STRING name)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Name which was acquired</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p><p>
This signal is sent to a specific application when it gains
ownership of a name.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.StartServiceByName"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-start-service-by-name"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.StartServiceByName</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
UINT32 StartServiceByName (in STRING name, in UINT32 flags)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Name of the service to start</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>UINT32</td><td>Flags (currently not used)</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Reply arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>UINT32</td><td>Return value</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Tries to launch the executable associated with a name. For more information, see <a class="xref" href="#message-bus-starting-services" title="Message Bus Starting Services">the section called &#8220;Message Bus Starting Services&#8221;</a>.
</p><p>
The return value can be one of the following values:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Identifier</th><th>Value</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>DBUS_START_REPLY_SUCCESS</td><td>1</td><td>The service was successfully started.</td></tr><tr><td>DBUS_START_REPLY_ALREADY_RUNNING</td><td>2</td><td>A connection already owns the given name.</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.UpdateActivationEnvironment"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-update-activation-environment"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.UpdateActivationEnvironment</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
UpdateActivationEnvironment (in ARRAY of DICT&lt;STRING,STRING&gt; environment)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>ARRAY of DICT&lt;STRING,STRING&gt;</td><td>Environment to add or update</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Normally, session bus activated services inherit the environment of the bus daemon. This method adds to or modifies that environment when activating services.
</p><p>
Some bus instances, such as the standard system bus, may disable access to this method for some or all callers.
</p><p>
Note, both the environment variable names and values must be valid UTF-8. There's no way to update the activation environment with data that is invalid UTF-8.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.GetNameOwner"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-get-name-owner"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.GetNameOwner</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
STRING GetNameOwner (in STRING name)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Name to get the owner of</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Reply arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Return value, a unique connection name</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Returns the unique connection name of the primary owner of the name
given. If the requested name doesn't have an owner, returns a
<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.NameHasNoOwner</code> error.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.GetConnectionUnixUser"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-get-connection-unix-user"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.GetConnectionUnixUser</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
UINT32 GetConnectionUnixUser (in STRING bus_name)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Unique or well-known bus name of the connection to
query, such as <code class="literal">:12.34</code> or
<code class="literal">com.example.tea</code></td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Reply arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>UINT32</td><td>Unix user ID</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Returns the Unix user ID of the process connected to the server. If
unable to determine it (for instance, because the process is not on the
same machine as the bus daemon), an error is returned.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.GetConnectionUnixProcessID"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-get-connection-unix-process-id"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.GetConnectionUnixProcessID</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
UINT32 GetConnectionUnixProcessID (in STRING bus_name)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Unique or well-known bus name of the connection to
query, such as <code class="literal">:12.34</code> or
<code class="literal">com.example.tea</code></td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Reply arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>UINT32</td><td>Unix process id</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Returns the Unix process ID of the process connected to the server. If
unable to determine it (for instance, because the process is not on the
same machine as the bus daemon), an error is returned.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.AddMatch"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-add-match"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.AddMatch</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
AddMatch (in STRING rule)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Match rule to add to the connection</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Adds a match rule to match messages going through the message bus (see <a class="xref" href="#message-bus-routing-match-rules" title="Match Rules">the section called &#8220;Match Rules&#8221;</a>).
If the bus does not have enough resources the <code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.OOM</code>
error is returned.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.RemoveMatch"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-remove-match"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.RemoveMatch</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
RemoveMatch (in STRING rule)
</pre><p>
Message arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Match rule to remove from the connection</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Removes the first rule that matches (see <a class="xref" href="#message-bus-routing-match-rules" title="Match Rules">the section called &#8220;Match Rules&#8221;</a>).
If the rule is not found the <code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.MatchRuleNotFound</code>
error is returned.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.GetId"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="bus-messages-get-id"></a><code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.GetId</code></h4></div></div></div><p>
As a method:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
GetId (out STRING id)
</pre><p>
Reply arguments:
</p><div class="informaltable"><table border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th>Argument</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>0</td><td>STRING</td><td>Unique ID identifying the bus daemon</td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>
Gets the unique ID of the bus. The unique ID here is shared among all addresses the
bus daemon is listening on (TCP, UNIX domain socket, etc.) and its format is described in
<a class="xref" href="#uuids" title="UUIDs">the section called &#8220;UUIDs&#8221;</a>. Each address the bus is listening on also has its own unique
ID, as described in <a class="xref" href="#addresses" title="Server Addresses">the section called &#8220;Server Addresses&#8221;</a>. The per-bus and per-address IDs are not related.
There is also a per-machine ID, described in <a class="xref" href="#standard-interfaces-peer" title="org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer">the section called &#8220;<code class="literal">org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer</code>&#8221;</a> and returned
by org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.GetMachineId().
For a desktop session bus, the bus ID can be used as a way to uniquely identify a user's session.
</p></div></div></div><div class="glossary" title="Glossary"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="idp5788992"></a>Glossary</h2></div></div></div><p>
This glossary defines some of the terms used in this specification.
</p><dl><dt><a name="term-bus-name"></a>Bus Name</dt><dd><p>
The message bus maintains an association between names and
connections. (Normally, there's one connection per application.) A
bus name is simply an identifier used to locate connections. For
example, the hypothetical <code class="literal">com.yoyodyne.Screensaver</code>
name might be used to send a message to a screensaver from Yoyodyne
Corporation. An application is said to <em class="firstterm">own</em> a
name if the message bus has associated the application's connection
with the name. Names may also have <em class="firstterm">queued
owners</em> (see <a class="xref" href="#term-queued-owner" title="Queued Name Owner">Queued Name Owner</a>).
The bus assigns a unique name to each connection,
see <a class="xref" href="#term-unique-name" title="Unique Connection Name">Unique Connection Name</a>. Other names
can be thought of as "well-known names" and are
used to find applications that offer specific functionality.
</p></dd><dt><a name="term-message"></a>Message</dt><dd><p>
A message is the atomic unit of communication via the D-Bus
protocol. It consists of a <em class="firstterm">header</em> and a
<em class="firstterm">body</em>; the body is made up of
<em class="firstterm">arguments</em>.
</p></dd><dt><a name="term-message-bus"></a>Message Bus</dt><dd><p>
The message bus is a special application that forwards
or routes messages between a group of applications
connected to the message bus. It also manages
<em class="firstterm">names</em> used for routing
messages.
</p></dd><dt><a name="term-name"></a>Name</dt><dd><p>
See <a class="xref" href="#term-bus-name" title="Bus Name">Bus Name</a>. "Name" may
also be used to refer to some of the other names
in D-Bus, such as interface names.
</p></dd><dt><a name="namespace"></a>Namespace</dt><dd><p>
Used to prevent collisions when defining new interfaces or bus
names. The convention used is the same one Java uses for defining
classes: a reversed domain name.
</p></dd><dt><a name="term-object"></a>Object</dt><dd><p>
Each application contains <em class="firstterm">objects</em>, which have
<em class="firstterm">interfaces</em> and
<em class="firstterm">methods</em>. Objects are referred to by a name,
called a <em class="firstterm">path</em>.
</p></dd><dt><a name="one-to-one"></a>One-to-One</dt><dd><p>
An application talking directly to another application, without going
through a message bus. One-to-one connections may be "peer to peer" or
"client to server." The D-Bus protocol has no concept of client
vs. server after a connection has authenticated; the flow of messages
is symmetrical (full duplex).
</p></dd><dt><a name="term-path"></a>Path</dt><dd><p>
Object references (object names) in D-Bus are organized into a
filesystem-style hierarchy, so each object is named by a path. As in
LDAP, there's no difference between "files" and "directories"; a path
can refer to an object, while still having child objects below it.
</p></dd><dt><a name="term-queued-owner"></a>Queued Name Owner</dt><dd><p>
Each bus name has a primary owner; messages sent to the name go to the
primary owner. However, certain names also maintain a queue of
secondary owners "waiting in the wings." If the primary owner releases
the name, then the first secondary owner in the queue automatically
becomes the new owner of the name.
</p></dd><dt><a name="term-service"></a>Service</dt><dd><p>
A service is an executable that can be launched by the bus daemon.
Services