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<html><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"><title>D-Bus Test Plan</title><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL Stylesheets V1.75.2"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="article" title="D-Bus Test Plan"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="index"></a>D-Bus Test Plan</h2></div><div><div class="authorgroup"><div class="author"><h3 class="author"><span class="firstname">Anders</span> <span class="surname">Carlsson</span></h3><div class="affiliation"><span class="orgname">CodeFactory AB<br></span><div class="address"><p><code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href=""></a>&gt;</code></p></div></div></div></div></div></div><hr></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#importance-of-testing">The importance of testing</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#client-library">Testing the D-Bus client library</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#data-structures">Data Structures</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#message-loader">Message loader</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#authentication">Authentication</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#daemon">Testing the D-Bus bus daemon</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#debug-transport">The debug transport</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bus-test">The bus-test program</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#other-tests">Other tests</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#oom-robustness">Out-Of-Memory robustness</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#leaks-and-other-stuff">Memory leaks and code robustness</a></span></dt></dl></dd></dl></div><div class="sect1" title="Introduction"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="introduction"></a>Introduction</h2></div></div></div><p>
This document tries to explain the details of the test plan for D-Bus
</p><div class="sect2" title="The importance of testing"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="importance-of-testing"></a>The importance of testing</h3></div></div></div><p>
As with any big library or program, testing is important. It
can help find bugs and regressions and make the code better
D-Bus is a large and complex piece of software (about 25,000
lines of code for the client library, and 2,500 lines of code
for the bus daemon) and it's therefore important to try to make sure
that all parts of the software is functioning correctly.
D-Bus can be built with support for testing by passing
<code class="literal">--enable-tests</code>. to the configure script. It
is recommended that production systems build without testing
since that reduces the D-Bus client library size.
</p></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Testing the D-Bus client library"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="client-library"></a>Testing the D-Bus client library</h2></div></div></div><p>
The tests for the client library consist of the dbus-test
program which is a unit test for all aspects of the client
library. Whenever a bug in the client library is found and
fixed, a test is added to make sure that the bug won't occur again.
</p><div class="sect2" title="Data Structures"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="data-structures"></a>Data Structures</h3></div></div></div><p>
The D-Bus client library consists of some data structures that
are used internally; a linked list class, a hashtable class and
a string class. All aspects of those are tested by dbus-test.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Message loader"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="message-loader"></a>Message loader</h3></div></div></div><p>
The message loader is the part of D-Bus that takes messages in
raw character form and parses them, turning them into DBusMessages.
This is one of the parts of D-Bus that
<span class="emphasis"><em>must</em></span> be absolutely bug-free and
robust. The message loader should be able to handle invalid
and incomplete messages without crashing. Not doing so is a
serious issue and can easily result in D-Bus being exploitable
to DoS attacks.
To solve these problems, there is a testing feature called the
Message Builder. The message builder can take a serialized
message in string-form and convert it into a raw character
string which can then be loaded by the message loader.
</p><div class="figure"><a name="idp59024"></a><p class="title"><b>Figure 1. Example of a message in string form</b></p><div class="figure-contents"><pre class="programlisting">
# Standard org.freedesktop.DBus.Hello message
STRING 'org.freedesktop.DBus.Hello'
STRING 'org.freedesktop.DBus'
</pre></div></div><br class="figure-break"><p>
The file format of messages in string form is documented in
the D-Bus Reference Manual.
The message test part of dbus-test is using the message
builder to build different kinds of messages, both valid,
invalid, and invalid ones, to make sure that the loader won't
crash or leak memory of any of those, and that the loader
knows if a message is valid or not.
There is also a test program called
<code class="literal">break-loader</code> that loads a message in
string-form into raw character form using the message
builder. It then randomly changes the message, it can for
example replace single bytes of data or modify the length of
the message. This is to simulate network errors. The
break-loader program saves all the messages leading to errors
so it can easily be run for a long period of time.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Authentication"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="authentication"></a>Authentication</h3></div></div></div><p>
For testing authentication, there is a testing feature that
can read authentication sequences from a file and play them
back to a dummy server and client to make sure that
authentication is working according to the specification.
</p><div class="figure"><a name="idp65712"></a><p class="title"><b>Figure 2. Example of an authentication script</b></p><div class="figure-contents"><pre class="programlisting">
## this tests a successful auth of type EXTERNAL
</pre></div></div><br class="figure-break"></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Testing the D-Bus bus daemon"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="daemon"></a>Testing the D-Bus bus daemon</h2></div></div></div><p>
Since the D-Bus bus daemon is using the D-Bus client library it
will benefit from all tests done on the client library, but
there is still the issue of testing client-server communication.
This is more complicated since it it may require another process
</p><div class="sect2" title="The debug transport"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="debug-transport"></a>The debug transport</h3></div></div></div><p>
In D-Bus, a <span class="emphasis"><em>transport</em></span> is a class that
handles sending and receiving raw data over a certain
medium. The transport that is used most in D-Bus is the UNIX
transport with sends and recevies data over a UNIX socket. A
transport that tunnels data through X11 client messages is
also under development.
The D-Bus debug transport is a specialized transport that
works in-process. This means that a client and server that
exists in the same process can talk to eachother without using
a socket.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="The bus-test program"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="bus-test"></a>The bus-test program</h3></div></div></div><p>
The bus-test program is a program that is used to test various
parts of the D-Bus bus daemon; robustness and that it conforms
to the specifications.
The test program has the necessary code from the bus daemon
linked in, and it uses the debug transport for
communication. This means that the bus daemon code can be
tested without the real bus actually running, which makes
testing easier.
The bus-test program should test all major features of the
bus, such as service registration, notification when things
occurs and message matching.
</p></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Other tests"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="other-tests"></a>Other tests</h2></div></div></div><div class="sect2" title="Out-Of-Memory robustness"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="oom-robustness"></a>Out-Of-Memory robustness</h3></div></div></div><p>
Since D-Bus should be able to be used in embedded devices, and
also as a system service, it should be able to cope with
low-memory situations without exiting or crashing.
In practice, this means that both the client and server code
must be able to handle dbus_malloc returning NULL.
To test this, two environment variables
exist. <code class="literal">DBUS_MALLOC_FAIL_NTH</code> will make every
nth call to dbus_malloc return NULL, and
<code class="literal">DBUS_MALLOC_FAIL_GREATER_THAN</code> will make any
dbus_malloc call with a request for more than the specified
number of bytes fail.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Memory leaks and code robustness"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="leaks-and-other-stuff"></a>Memory leaks and code robustness</h3></div></div></div><p>
Naturally there are some things that tests can't be written
for, for example things like memory leaks and out-of-bounds
memory reading or writing.
Luckily there exists good tools for catching such errors. One
free good tool is <a class="ulink" href="" target="_top">Valgrind</a>, which runs the program in a
virtual CPU which makes catching errors easy. All test programs can be run under Valgrind,